English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English an-, from Old English an-, on- (on-), from Proto-West Germanic *ana-, from Proto-Germanic *ana- (on). More at on.

Alternative forms edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Alternative form of on-
    ancome, aneal, anent

Etymology 2 edit

From Ancient Greek ἀν- (an-). Doublet of un- and in- .

Prefix edit

an-

  1. not; used to make words that have a sense opposite to the word (or stem) to which the prefix is attached. Used with stems that begin with vowels and "h".
  2. Without, lacking.
    anoxia (without oxygen), anandrous (without male parts)
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

See also edit

Anagrams edit

Aromanian edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Alternative form of ãn-

Classical Nahuatl edit

Alternative forms edit

  • am- (when followed by a vowel or a consonant which is labial)

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Subject prefix for verbs; it indicates that the subject is second-person plural; you, you all.

Cornish edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. un-, non-

References edit

  • Akademi Kernewek Gerlyver Kernewek (FSS) Cornish Dictionary (SWF), 2018, published 2018, page 11

Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ɑn/
  • (file)

Prefix edit

an-

  1. an-: Not, without, opposite of.

Derived terms edit

French edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. in-, an-. Alternative form of a- before a vowel or h

Derived terms edit

German edit

Etymology edit

From the preposition an, from Middle High German an(e), from Proto-West Germanic *ana, from Proto-Germanic *ana. Compare Dutch aan-, English on-.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /an/, [ʔan]
  • IPA(key): /aːn/ (still sometimes Austria, Switzerland; in Germany now highly archaic)

Prefix edit

an- (seperable verb prefix)

  1. onto, at, towards (the object)
    an- + ‎schrauben (to screw) → ‎anschrauben (to screw on, attach by screwing)
    an- + ‎schreien (to shout) → ‎anschreien (to shout at)
    an- + ‎bauen (to build) → ‎anbauen (to attach, expand, build next to)
  2. near, over, towards (the subject)
    Synonyms: her-, herbei-
    Antonyms: ab-, weg-, fort-
    an- + ‎ziehen (to pull) → ‎anziehen (to attract, pull towards one)
    an- + ‎kaufen (to buy) → ‎ankaufen (to buy so as to form a stock, buy up)
  3. expresses a beginning, partial or slight action
    Antonyms: durch-, fertig-, weg-
    an- + ‎knabbern (to nibble) → ‎anknabbern (to nibble part of, start to nibble)
    an- + ‎braten (to fry) → ‎anbraten (to sear, fry outwardly or slightly)
    an- + ‎zahlen (to pay) → ‎anzahlen (to pay down, pay part of)
  4. on, in use
    Antonym: aus-
    an- + ‎stellen (to put) → ‎anstellen (to turn on)

Usage notes edit

  • Also occurs in many nouns, but these are generally deverbal.

Derived terms edit

Ido edit

Etymology edit

From an (at, on).

Prefix edit

an-

  1. at, on

Derived terms edit

Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Irish an-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Alternative forms edit

  • ana- (form used before consonants in Munster)

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. (with adjectives, always spelled with a hyphen) very
    Synonyms: fíor-, rí-
  2. (with adjectives) over-, excessively, intensely
  3. (with nouns) great, excessive
Usage notes edit
  • Triggers lenition (except of d, s, and t):
  • an- + ‎beag → ‎an-bheag (very small)
  • an- + ‎deas → ‎an-deas (very nice)
  • In some dialects (e.g. Aran), it also changes s to ts:
  • an- + ‎saor → ‎an-tsaor (very cheap) (standard form an-saor)
  • In Munster, this form is used only before a vowel; before a consonant the variant ana- is used.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Irish an-, in-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Alternative forms edit

  • ain- (used before slender vowels and consonants)

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an- (usually spelled without a hyphen)

  1. in-, un-, not
  2. bad, unnatural
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Ancient Greek ἀν- (an-).

Prefix edit

an-

  1. an- (not)
Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
an- n-an- han- t-an-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

Italian edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Alternative form of a- indicating lack or loss

Derived terms edit

Luxembourgish edit

Etymology edit

From the preposition an, from Proto-Germanic *in. Compare German ein-, English in-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. in- (indicates physical or metaphorical motion into something)

Usage notes edit

  • When attached to a verb stem beginning with a consonant sound other than /d/, /h/, /n/, /t/ or /t͡s/, the prefix becomes a- as a result of the Eifeler Regel.

Antonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Malagasy edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. prefix element of an- -ana

See also edit

Middle English edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Alternative form of en-

Middle Welsh edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Brythonic *an-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Prefix edit

an-

  1. un-, not

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Welsh: an-, af-

Old English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *aina-, from Proto-Germanic *aina- (one, uni-), equivalent to Old English ān (one).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

ān-

  1. one; mono-, uni-
    ān- + -hende (handed)ānhende (one-handed)
    ān- + horn (horn)ānhorn (unicorn)
    ān- + -īeġe (-eyed)ānīeġe (one-eyed)
    ān- + -mōd (-minded)ānmōd (unanimous)
    ān- + -nes (-ness)ānnes (unity)
    ān- + wīġ (battle)ānwīġ (duel)
    ān- + -wille (-willed)ānwille (stubborn)
    ān- + -wintre (years old)ānwintre (one year old)
  2. lone, alone
    ān- + *genġa (walker)āngenġa (loner)
    ān- + *setla (settler)ānsetla (hermit)

Related terms edit

Old French edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Alternative form of en-

Usage notes edit

Old Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Alternative forms edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. un-, not
  2. bad
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Irish: an-
  • Scottish Gaelic: an-

Etymology 2 edit

Uncertain. Maybe related to Welsh en- and Gaulish ande- in proper names Andecarus (literally very dear) and Anderoudus (literally very red).[1] Considered the same word as an- (un-) by DIL (see Further reading).

Prefix edit

an-

  1. very
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Irish: an-
  • Scottish Gaelic: an-

Etymology 3 edit

Unknown

Prefix edit

an-

  1. denoting a movement away from some reference point, used to form adverbs of place, for example anúas (from above)
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Irish: an-
  • Scottish Gaelic: an-

References edit

  1. ^ Vendryes, Joseph (1959–96), “an-, particule intensive”, in Lexique Étymologique de l'Irlandais Ancien [Etymological lexicon of Old Irish] (in French), volume A, Dublin, Paris: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, page A-70

Further reading edit

Pali edit

Alternative forms edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Alternative form of a- used before words beginning with vowels

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Pali Text Society (1921–1925), “an-”, in Pali-English Dictionary‎, London: Chipstead

Pipil edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. (personal) you, second-person plural subject marker.
    Antekitit tik ne mil?
    Do you work at the cornfield?

Usage notes edit

  • Before a vowel, an- changes to anh-. The digraph ⟨nh⟩ is pronounced as [ŋ]. Example:
Anhajsiket peyna.
You came early.

See also edit

Polish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (un-, not), zero-grade form of *ne (not). Doublet of nie.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. forming words with the sense of negation, an-

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • an- in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Saterland Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Old Frisian an-, from Proto-West Germanic *ana-. Cognates include West Frisian oan- and German an-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Combining form of an

Derived terms edit

Scottish Gaelic edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Irish an-.

Prefix edit

an-

  1. un-, anti-
  2. bad, unnatural

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. Used to emphasise the root.

Derived terms edit

Spanish edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. an-

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From the Old Swedish and- meaning “against/towards”.

Prefix edit

an-

  1. against, towards

Derived terms edit

Anagrams edit

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Welsh an-, from Proto-Brythonic *an-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.[1] Cognate with Cornish an-.

Prefix edit

an-

  1. not, un-, non-, an-, dis-, negative prefix
    Synonym: (used before gl, ll, rh, and consonantal i) af-
    an- + ‎parch (respect) → ‎amarch (disrespect)
    an- + ‎prisiadwy (valuable) → ‎amhrisiadwy (invaluable)
    an- + ‎teg (fair) → ‎annheg (unfair)
    an- + ‎cofio (to remember) → ‎anghofio (to forget)
    an- + ‎diwedd (end) → ‎anniwedd (endless)
    an- + ‎gwybod (to know) → ‎anwybod (ignorance)
    an- + ‎mantais (advantage) → ‎anfantais (disadvantage)
Usage notes edit

Triggers the nasal mutation of p, t, c and d, sometimes with accompanying euphonic or orthographic adjustments, and the soft mutation of b, g and m.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Celtic *ande-, *ando- (inside).

Prefix edit

an- (not productive)

  1. intensive prefix
  2. in-, inside, inward
Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
an- unchanged unchanged han-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “an-”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

References edit

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 156 i 5

Ye'kwana edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

an-

  1. allomorph of ön- (negative/sociative irrealis prefix) used for stems that begin with a or e.