착하다

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

First attested in the Gyechuk ilgi (癸丑日記 / 계축일기), c. 1600 , as Early Modern Korean 착ᄒᆞ다 (Yale: chak-hota), combining adjective-forming ᄒᆞ다 (Yale: hota), modern 하다 (hada), with cranberry morpheme .

Other than this unusually early attestation, the word only reappears after c. 1700. The original manuscript of the Gyechuk ilgi is lost and the versions that currently survive may have been subject to edits to the manuscript several decades to more than a century later, and Kim Yang-jin 2015 argues that this word is actually a late seventeenth-century loan-calque from Manchu ᠴᠠᡴ
ᠰᡝᡵᡝ
(cak sere, to be strict, to be orderly), with ᠰᡝᡵᡝ (sere) being translated to its Korean equivalent 하다 (hada).

Alternatively, perhaps derived from the ideophone (chak, “calmly, calmingly, tiredly”), or the homophonous ideophone (chak, “sticking tight”).

PronunciationEdit

Revised Romanization? chakhada
Revised Romanization (translit.)? chag-hada
McCune–Reischauer? ch'akhada
Yale Romanization? chak.hata

AdjectiveEdit

착하다 (chakhada) (infinitive 착해 or 착하여, sequential 착하니)

  1. to be good-hearted, to be kind, to be nice [from the 19th century]
    착한 사람 좋아.
    Nan chakhan sarami joa.
    I like nice people.
    Synonym: 선하다 (—) (seonhada)
  2. (colloquial) to be good, to be pleasing [after c. 2005]
    가격 착해.
    Gagyeogi chakhae.
    The prices are good [cheap].
  3. (obsolete) to be smart, to be intelligent [chiefly 18th century]
  4. (obsolete) to be correct [chiefly 18th century]
  5. (obsolete) to be outstanding [chiefly 18th century]
  6. (obsolete) to be fashionable [chiefly 18th century]

ConjugationEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 김양진 (Kim Yang-jin) (2015) , “'착하다'의 어휘사 [The lexical history of chak-hata]”, in Han'gugeo Eomunhak, volume 93, pages 33-54