See also: mpi and MPI

FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *-mpa, from Proto-Finno-Ugric *-mpa. Cognate with Hungarian -bb and the element -mb in Moksha сембе (sembe). The change a > i of the final vowel in nominative is shared with Karelian -mpi, but its ultimate cause is uncertain.

SuffixEdit

-mpi

  1. Forms comparative adjectives.
    heikko (weak)heikompi (weaker)
    matala (low, shallow)matalampi (lower, shallower)
    ruma (ugly)rumempi (uglier)
    suuri (great, large)suurempi (greater, larger)
  2. Forms adjectives that indicate relative location from some nouns that indicate location. In most of these cases the noun has disappeared from the language as independent word but continues to exist as prefix, and some cases are used as postpositions indicating location.
    esi-edempi (located ahead of something else)
    lähi-lähempi (closer)
    perä (aft part of something)perempi (located further aback)
    sisäsisempi (inner)
    takataempi (located behind something else)
    ulko-ulompi (outer)

Usage notesEdit

  • Bisyllabic adjectives ending in -a or change the final vowel to -e- before the comparative suffix is appended, but adjectives with three or more syllables do not (except in some dialects). In compound terms only the headword counts. The stem is the same as in the genitive singular. This change is likely identical to those seen in -ntaa and -ella.

DeclensionEdit

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -mpi (Kotus type 16/vanhempi, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -mpi -mmat
genitive -mman -mpien
partitive -mpaa -mpia
illative -mpaan -mpiin
singular plural
nominative -mpi -mmat
accusative nom. -mpi -mmat
gen. -mman
genitive -mman -mpien
-mpainrare
partitive -mpaa -mpia
inessive -mmassa -mmissa
elative -mmasta -mmista
illative -mpaan -mpiin
adessive -mmalla -mmilla
ablative -mmalta -mmilta
allative -mmalle -mmille
essive -mpana -mpina
translative -mmaksi -mmiksi
instructive -mmin
abessive -mmatta -mmitta
comitative -mpine
Possessive forms of -mpi (type vanhempi)
possessor singular plural
1st person -mpani -mpamme
2nd person -mpasi -mpanne
3rd person -mpansa
Only used with substantive adjectives, -inen adjectives used for comparisons of equality or agent participles.

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -mpi (Kotus type 16/vanhempi, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -mpi -mmät
genitive -mmän -mpien
partitive -mpää -mpiä
illative -mpään -mpiin
singular plural
nominative -mpi -mmät
accusative nom. -mpi -mmät
gen. -mmän
genitive -mmän -mpien
-mpäinrare
partitive -mpää -mpiä
inessive -mmässä -mmissä
elative -mmästä -mmistä
illative -mpään -mpiin
adessive -mmällä -mmillä
ablative -mmältä -mmiltä
allative -mmälle -mmille
essive -mpänä -mpinä
translative -mmäksi -mmiksi
instructive -mmin
abessive -mmättä -mmittä
comitative -mpine
Possessive forms of -mpi (type vanhempi)
possessor singular plural
1st person -mpäni -mpämme
2nd person -mpäsi -mpänne
3rd person -mpänsä
Only used with substantive adjectives, -inen adjectives used for comparisons of equality or agent participles.

See alsoEdit