See also: ttu


Alternative formsEdit


From Proto-Finnic *-ttu, probably from *-ta-, *-tta- (passive infix) + *-u.


  • IPA(key): /-tːu/, [-t̪ːu]
  • IPA(key): /-tːuˣ/, [-t̪ːu(ʔ)]


-ttu (front vowel harmony variant -tty)

  1. Forms the past passive participle of a verb, which is normally used like an adjective. The English equivalent is normally -ed.
    katsoa (to see, look, watch)katsottu elokuva = a seen film / a watched film (a film that has been seen or watched)

Usage notesEdit

  • Some inflected forms have specific uses:
    • genitive singular: used with verbs of reporting or observing to refer to the action having been done by someone (passively) according to that report or observation.
      Artikkelia sanotaan luetun paljon Suomen kouluissa.
      It is said that this article has been read a lot in Finnish schools.
    • partitive singular:
      1. used (chiefly) with a possessive suffix for "having done"
        Syötyäni päätin ottaa nokoset.
        Having eaten, I decided to take a nap.
      2. used with saada to express finishing something, often in the sense of an achievement
        Sain sen syötyä.
        I managed to eat it.
      3. used with tulla without a possessive suffix to disparagingly talk about something someone has done
        Mitä tuli sanottua?
        What did you (just) say (to me)?


Inflection of -ttu (Kotus type 1*C/valo, tt-t gradation)
nominative -ttu -tut
genitive -tun -ttujen
partitive -ttua -ttuja
illative -ttuun -ttuihin
singular plural
nominative -ttu -tut
accusative nom. -ttu -tut
gen. -tun
genitive -tun -ttujen
partitive -ttua -ttuja
inessive -tussa -tuissa
elative -tusta -tuista
illative -ttuun -ttuihin
adessive -tulla -tuilla
ablative -tulta -tuilta
allative -tulle -tuille
essive -ttuna -ttuina
translative -tuksi -tuiksi
instructive -tuin
abessive -tutta -tuitta
comitative -ttuine
Possessive forms of -ttu (type valo)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
possessor singular plural
1st person -ttuni -ttumme
2nd person -ttusi -ttunne
3rd person -ttunsa

Derived termsEdit

See Category:Finnish past passive participles.