See also: tu, , and þú

AfarEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-tu

  1. Form of -ytu used after nouns ending in consonants.

DeclensionEdit

Declension of -tu
absolutive -tu
predicative -tu
subjective -tí
genitive -tí
Postpositioned forms
l-case -tul
k-case -tuk
t-case -tut
h-case -tuh

ReferencesEdit

  • E. M. Parker; R. J. Hayward (1985) An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN, page 228
  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

BasqueEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -du (see usage notes)

EtymologyEdit

From Latin -tum, a past participle forming suffix. Basque borrowed Latin verbs in their participle form (for example, aditu (to hear) from audītum, neuter perfect passive participle of audiō (I hear)), with the ending being reinterpreted as a new verb forming suffix.[1]

SuffixEdit

-tu

  1. A verb-forming suffix.
    euskara (Basque) + ‎-tu → ‎euskaratu (to translate into Basque)
    ohera (to, towards bed) + ‎-tu → ‎oheratu (to go to bed)
    gehi (plus) + ‎-tu → ‎gehitu (to add)
  2. Used to form adjectives, roughly corresponding to the English past participle forming suffix -ed.
    gehi (plus) + ‎-tu → ‎gehitu (augmented)

Usage notesEdit

  • Takes the form -du after words ending in /l/ or /n/:
    lagun (friend) + ‎-tu → ‎lagundu (to help)
  • This is the only productive verb-forming suffix in modern Basque, having displaced the native suffix -i.
  • Verbs taking this suffix have no synthetic forms (with the exception of ezagutu (to know)).

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ -tu” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk

EstonianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *-t'oin. Cognate with Finnish -ton/-tön.

SuffixEdit

-tu (genitive -tu, partitive -tut, comparative -tum, superlative kõige -tum)

  1. -less

InflectionEdit

Derived termsEdit


FinnishEdit

SuffixEdit

-tu (front vowel harmony variant -ty)

  1. Alternative form of -ttu

AnagramsEdit


GarifunaEdit

SuffixEdit

-tu

  1. nominalizing suffix deriving agent nouns of feminine gender (see -ti for masculine).
    Abuwaguto cook
    Abuwagutuchef (female)

LatinEdit

SuffixEdit

-tū

  1. ablative singular of -tus

Old IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Perhaps cognate with Latin -tūs?”)

SuffixEdit

-tu m

  1. -ness, -ity

InflectionEdit

Masculine d-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -tu
Vocative -tu
Accusative -taidN
Genitive -tad
Dative -taidL
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Derived termsEdit


Old NorseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

-tu (enclitic)

  1. enclitic form of þú
    • Haralds saga hins hárfagra 41.
      Nú tóktu svá við sem várr konungr vildi.
    • Lokasenna 24.
      En þik síða kóðu / Samseyju í / ok draptu á vétt sem vǫlur / vitka líki / fórtu verþjóð yfir / ok hugða ek þat args aðal
    skalt (shalt) + ‎þú → ‎skaltu (shalt thou)
    lát (let (impr.)) + ‎þú → ‎láttu (let (impr.))

Usage notesEdit

For reasons related to syntax, as well as Old Norse often explicitly stating the subject of verbs in the imperative, the verb is often followed by the subject pronoun. For þú, this is when it may take on an enclitic form. This is not to say, however, that whenever þú comes after a verb, it will always take an enclitic form. It could well stay separate for the sake of emphasis.

Which one of the variants -du, -ðu and -tu to use, is decided by the same rules that decide which dental suffix to take in the type 1 weak verbs. This form is used after hard consonants.

DescendantsEdit

This feature is also present in modern Icelandic verb conjugation, with its imperative forms with appended personal pronouns (though only in the second person).

See alsoEdit