Appendix:Finnish numbers

Numbers larger than 10Edit

CardinalsEdit

The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19 are composed with suffix -toista (-teen): yksitoista, kaksitoista...

The cardinal numbers from 20 to 99 are composed according to the pattern (kaksiyhdeksän) + kymmentä + (yksiyhdeksän).

kolme¦kymmentä¦seitsemänthirty-seven

Hundreds are simply added to the same set, one hundred in nominative and the hundreds of two hundred—nine hundred in partitive.

sata¦kuusikymmentä¦viisione hundred and sixty-five
kuusisataa seitsemänkymmentäneljäsix hundred and seventy-four

OrdinalsEdit

The ordinal numbers from 11th to 19th are the ordinal numbers 1st to 9th with suffix -toista (-teen), with 11th and 12th being exceptions: yhdestoista, kahdestoista, kolmastoista...

The ordinal numbers from 20th to 99th are the cardinal numbers with all components receiving the ordinal suffix:

kolmas¦kymmenes¦seitsemästhirty-seventh

kahdes is used with the decades and, it may also, alongside yhdes, optionally be used for units. Both kahdeskymmenesensimmäinen and kahdeskymmenesyhdes are acceptable.

The same pattern continues for higher numerals, with all components receiving the suffix.

sadas¦kuudeskymmenes¦viidesone hundred and sixty-fifth
kuudessadas¦seitsemäskymmenes¦neljässix hundred and seventy-fourth

ArchaicEdit

Numbers from 21 to 99 (except for the tens 30s, 40s, etc.) used to be formed as the unit (either in cardinal or ordinal) followed by the partitive singular form of the ordinal of the next number in tens, similar to how 11 to 19 is formed as 1-9 + toista (of the second). Thus, 21 used to be yksikolmatta (yksi (of) + kolmatta (of the third)), while 21st would have been yhdeskolmatta or ensimmäinenkolmatta (yhdes/ensimmäinen (first) + kolmatta (of the third)). These forms have fallen out of use and are now considered archaic.

Etymologically all of these forms are by ellipsis where the word kymmentä ((of) decade). For example, yksitoista (eleven, literally one of the second) was originally yksi toista kymmentä (literally one of the second decade).

Writing conventionsEdit

When written in numeric form, cardinal numbers are divided in "groups of three" with spaces: 1,000,000,000 → 1 000 000 000. When writing decimal numbers, the period and the comma are reversed in comparison with English: 1,000.31 -> 1.000,31. Thus, instead of a decimal point there is desimaalipilkku (decimal comma).

When writing a cardinal number out as text, each "group of three" is written together as one word, separated with space from the potences of ten (tuhatta, miljoonaa, miljardia...):

  • 300 700 400 283 -> kolmesataa miljardia seitsemänsataa miljoonaa neljäsataa tuhatta kaksisataakahdeksankymmentäkolme

Ordinals are usually abbreviated as the number followed by a period or full stop, like 1. and 39., but in names of dignitaries, such as monarchs and popes, Roman numerals are used instead.

PronunciationEdit

Contrary to the spelling, all powers of ten (and their multipliers) get their own primary stress. For example, kuusisataaseitsemänkymmentäneljä is pronounced as if kuusisataa seitsemänkymmentä neljä (IPA(key): /ˈkuːsiˌsɑtɑː ˈsei̯tsemænˌkymːentæ ˈneljæ/, [ˈkuːs̠iˌs̠ɑt̪ɑː ˈs̠e̞i̯ts̠e̞mæŋˌkymːe̞n̪t̪æ ˈne̞ljæ]).

Kaksi ihmistä seisoo bussipysäkillä.
Two people are standing at the bus stop.

With a numeral other than yksi (one) in the nominative case, the main word is in partitive case. In other cases, the cardinal number and the word it defines are congruent:

kolmea ihmisthree people (object)
kuudessa ihmisessäin six people
yhdeksälle ihmiselleto nine people

The plural forms are used mainly with words that are used only in plural:

yhdettoista hääteleven weddings
kymmenet hautajaisetten funerals / dozens of funerals

All the declinable parts of a number are in the same case:

kolmessa miljoonassa neljässäsadassakuudessakymmenessäneljässä tuhannessa yhdeksässäsadassakuudessatoista (inessive)
in three million four hundred and sixty-four thousand nine hundred and sixteen

When the number is written in numeric form the case suffix of the last declinable part is added to the number with a colon:

3 464 916:ssa (-ssa from -kuudessatoista)in 3,464,916

Usage notesEdit

Inexact quantitiesEdit

Inexact quantities may always be expressed with the adverb noin (about). The numbers 3 to 10 have also a specific inexact form, which is formed with the suffix -isen: kolmisen, nelisen, viitisen, kuutisen, seitsemisen, kahdeksisen, yhdeksisen, kymmenisen. They may be combined with -toista, kymmentä, sataa etc. for larger quantities, e.g. viitisen miljoonaa (~5,000,000). The corresponding form for kaksi is parisen. It behaves otherwise similarly, but cannot be combined with -toista.

Number of repetitionsEdit

The number of repetitions may always be expressed with kertaa (times). The numbers 2 to 10 plus 100, 1.000 and 1.000.000 have also a specific repetitive form which is formed with suffix -sti: kahdesti, kolmasti, neljästi, viidesti, kuudesti, seitsemästi, kahdeksasti, yhdeksästi, kymmenesti, sadasti, tuhannesti, miljoonasti. They may be combined with -toista, kymmentä, sataa etc. for larger quantities.

Number of people presentEdit

The numbers 2 to 6 have adverbial forms that express how many people are present or acting in unison: kaksin/kahdestaan, kolmisin/kolmistaan, neljästään/nelistään, viidestään, kuudestaan.

Cardinal and ordinal numbers between 0 and 10Edit

# Cardinal number Ordinal number
0 nolla nollas
1 yksi ensimmäinen
2 kaksi toinen
3 kolme kolmas
4 neljä neljäs
5 viisi viides
6 kuusi kuudes
7 seitsemän seitsemäs
8 kahdeksan kahdeksas
9 yhdeksän yhdeksäs
10 kymmenen kymmenes