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Numbers larger than 10Edit


The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19 are composed with suffix -toista (-teen): yksitoista, kaksitoista...

The cardinal numbers from 20 to 99 are composed by the following pattern:

  • (kaksi—yhdeksän) + kymmentä + (yksi—yhdeksän)
    • kolme|kymmentä|seitsemän = thirty-seven

Hundreds are simply added to the same set, one hundred in nominative and the hundreds of two hundred—nine hundred in partitive:

  • (100—199) sata (nom.) + kymmenen—yhdeksäntoista / kaksikymmentä—yhdeksänkymmentä + yksi—yhdeksän
    • sata|kuusikymmentä|viisi = one hundred and sixty-five
  • (200—999) kaksi—yhdeksän + sataa + kymmenen—yhdeksäntoista / kaksikymmentä—yhdeksänkymmentä + yksi—yhdeksän
    • kuusisataa (part.) seitsemänkymmentäneljä = six hundred and seventy-four


The ordinal numbers from 11th to 19th are the ordinal numbers 1st to 9th with suffix -toista (-teen), with 11th and 12th being exceptions: yhdestoista, kahdestoista, kolmastoista...

The ordinal numbers from 20th to 99th are the cardinal numbers with all components receiving the ordinal suffix:

  • kolmas|kymmenes|seitsemäs = thirty-seventh

The same pattern continues for higher numerals, with all components receiving the suffix.

  • sadas|kuudeskymmenes|viides = one hundred and sixty-fifth
  • kuudessadasseitsemäskymmenesneljäs = six hundred and seventy-fourth

Writing conventionsEdit

When written in numeric form, cardinal numbers are divided in "groups of three" with spaces: 3,000,000,000 -> 3 000 000 000. When writing decimal numbers, the period and the comma are reversed in comparison with English: 1,000.31 -> 1.000,31. Thus, instead of a decimal point there is desimaalipilkku (decimal comma).

When writing a cardinal number out as text, each "group of three" is written together as one word, separated with space from the potences of ten (tuhatta, miljoonaa, miljardia...):

  • 300 700 400 283 -> kolmesataa miljardia seitsemänsataa miljoonaa neljäsataa tuhatta kaksisataakahdeksankymmentäkolme

Ordinals are usually abbreviated as the number followed by a period or full stop, like 1. and 39., but in names of dignitaries, such as monarchs and popes, Roman numerals are used instead.


A cardinal number may be inflected in all cases and in both singular and plural. When a cardinal number is used attributively to express the quantity of specific objects, the main word and the corresponding verb are in the singular:

  • Kaksi ihmistä seisoo bussipysäkillä.
    • Two people are standing at the bus stop.

With a numeral other than yksi (one) in the nominative case, the main word is in partitive case. In other cases, the cardinal number and the word it defines are congruent:

  • kolmea ihmis = three people (object)
  • kuudessa ihmisessä = in six people
  • yhdeksälle ihmiselle = to nine people

The plural forms are used mainly with words that are used only in plural:

All the declinable parts of a number are in the same case:

  • (inessive) kolmessa miljoonassa neljässäsadassakuudessakymmenessäneljässä tuhannessa yhdeksässäsadassakuudessatoista
    • in three million four hundred and sixty-four thousand nine hundred and sixteen

When the number is written in numeric form the case suffix of the last declinable part is added to the number with a colon:

  • 3 464 916:ssa-ssa from -kuudessatoista
    • in 3,464,916

Usage notesEdit

Inexact quantitiesEdit

Inexact quantities may always be expressed with the adverb noin (about). The numbers 3 to 10 have also a specific inexact form, which is formed with the suffix -isen: kolmisen, nelisen, viitisen, kuutisen, seitsemisen, kahdeksisen, yhdeksisen, kymmenisen. They may be combined with -toista, kymmentä, sataa etc. for larger quantities, e.g. viitisen miljoonaa (~5,000,000). The corresponding form for kaksi is parisen. It behaves otherwise similarly, but cannot be combined with -toista.

Number of repetitionsEdit

The number of repetitions may always be expressed with kertaa (times). The numbers 2 to 10 plus 100, 1.000 and 1.000.000 have also a specific repetitive form which is formed with suffix -sti: kahdesti, kolmasti, neljästi, viidesti, kuudesti, seitsemästi, kahdeksasti, yhdeksästi, kymmenesti, sadasti, tuhannesti, miljoonasti. They may be combined with -toista, kymmentä, sataa etc. for larger quantities.

Number of people presentEdit

The numbers 2 to 6 have adverbial forms that express how many people are present or acting in unison: kaksin/kahdestaan, kolmisin/kolmistaan, neljästään/nelistään, viidestään, kuudestaan.

Cardinal and ordinal numbers between 0 and 10Edit