Finnish

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Finnish numbers (edit)
40
 ←  3 4 5  → 
    Cardinal: neljä
    Colloquial counting form: nee, nel
    Ordinal: neljäs
    Colloquial ordinal: nelkki (regional)
    Ordinal abbreviation: 4., 4:s
    Digit name: nelonen
    Adverbial: neljästi
    Multiplier: nelinkertainen
    Distributive: nelittäin
    Fractional: neljäsosa, neljännes

Etymology

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From Proto-Finnic *neljä, from Proto-Finno-Ugric *neljä. Cognates include Estonian neli, Northern Sami njeallje, Erzya ниле (ńiľe), Northern Mansi нила (nila) and Hungarian négy.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈneljæ/, [ˈne̞ljæ]
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -eljæ
  • Syllabification(key): nel‧jä

Numeral

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neljä

  1. four

Usage notes

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  • See Appendix:Finnish numbers.
  • The instructive plural nelin is almost always used instead of neljin and it is used e.g. in the phrase nelin kontin (on all fours) and in the structure nelin verroin + comparative, e.g. nelin verroin parempi (four times as good).

Declension

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Declension goes according to type koira (number 10), except of the two forms, which drop the j for better pronunciation (*): first instructive plural form nelin (the koira-type second form is neljin, which is dated) and temporal distributive form nelisin (koira-type form would have been neljisin).

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Kven: nelje, neljä

See also

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Further reading

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Ingrian

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Ingrian cardinal numbers
 <  3 4 5  > 
    Cardinal : neljä
    Ordinal : neljäs

Etymology

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From Proto-Finnic *neljä, from Proto-Uralic *neljä. Cognates include Finnish neljä and Estonian neli.

Pronunciation

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Numeral

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neljä

  1. four
    • 1936, L. G. Terehova, V. G. Erdeli, translated by Mihailov and P. I. Maksimov, Geografia: oppikirja iƶoroin alkușkoulun kolmatta klaassaa vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-Pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 6:
      Mittaisivat mitälee plaanua mööt, reknaisiit ja sanoivat, etti linnaa saa ono neljä kilometraa i yli tunnin, melkeen, möö leenemmä kois.
      They measured something along the map, counted and said, that it's four kilometers to the city and in an hour, approximately, we would be home.
    • 1936, V. I. Junus, Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[2], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 28:
      Esim.: määrällisiä cislasanoja ollaa: yks, kaks, kolt, neljä, viis.
      E.g.: The cardinal numbers are: one, two, three, four, five.

Declension

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Declension of neljä (type 3/koira, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative neljä neljät
genitive neljän neljiin
partitive neljää neljiä
illative neljää neljii
inessive neljääs neljiis
elative neljäst neljist
allative neljälle neljille
adessive neljääl neljiil
ablative neljält neljilt
translative neljäks neljiks
essive neljännä, neljään neljinnä, neljiin
exessive1) neljänt neljint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Derived terms

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References

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  • Fedor Tumansky (1790) “нела”, in Опытъ повѣствованїя о дѣянїях, положенїи, состоянїи и раздѣленїи Санкт-Петербургской губернїи [An experiment of an account of the acts, location, condition and division of the Saint Petersburg gubernia], Краткїй словарь ижерскаго, финскаго, эстонскаго, чюдскаго, и ямскаго нарѣчїя съ россїйскимъ переводомъ [A short dictionary of the Ingrian, Finnish, Estonian, Chud and Yamtian dialects with a Russian translation], page 703
  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[3], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 92
  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 338
  • Olga I. Konkova, Nikita A. Dyachkov (2014) Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[4], →ISBN, page 18

Kven

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Pronunciation

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Numeral

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neljä

  1. Alternative form of nelje

References

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  • Eira Söderholm (2017) Kvensk grammatikk, Tromsø: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, →ISBN, page 309