Estonian edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.) Cognate to Finnish -sti.

Suffix edit

-sti

  1. Derives adverbs.
    hää "good" → hästi "well"
    uus "new" → uuesti "again"
    kaunis "beautiful" → kaunisti "beautifully"
    kerge "easy" → kergesti "easily"

Derived terms edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-stik, probably equivalent to -sta (elative suffix) +‎ -i (lative suffix). Cognate to Estonian -sti. For the use of an elative ending to derive such adverbs, compare Erzya -сто (-sto), -стэ (-ste), (-сте (-sťe)) e.g. in вадрясто (vadŕasto), парсте (parsťe, well, good).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /-stiˣ/, [-s̠ti(ʔ)]

Suffix edit

-sti (comparative -mmin, superlative -immin)

  1. (adverbial suffix, comparable) Forms adverbs from adjectives describing the manner in which something is done; corresponds to the English suffix -ly.
    kaunis (beautiful) + ‎-sti → ‎kauniisti (beautifully)
    ruma (ugly) + ‎-sti → ‎rumasti (uglily)
    usea (many) + ‎-sti → ‎useasti (often)
  2. (multiplicative, not comparable) Forms multiplicative adverbs describing how many times something is done; corresponds to the number + times structure in English.
    kaksi (two) + ‎-sti → ‎kahdesti (twice)
    kymmenen (ten) + ‎-sti → ‎kymmenesti (ten times)
    moni (many) + ‎-sti → ‎monesti (many times)
  3. (intensifier) Forms intensifying adverbs from certain nouns.
    helvetti (hell) + ‎-sti → ‎helvetisti (hellishly)
    rutto (plague) + ‎-sti → ‎rutosti (a lot)

Usage notes edit

  • (adverbial suffix):
    • The -sti adverbs are used to describe the manner that something is done; the other common use in English to instead modify adjectives, such as to describe their degree or extent (tolerably quiet, exceptionally cold), is expressed in Finnish by making an adverb out of the adjective using the genitive case (siedettävän hiljainen, poikkeuksellisen kylmä).
      • Note the subtle difference:
        poikkeuksellisen kylmä ("exceptionally cold"; so cold that it is exceptional, i.e. it is rarely this cold)
        poikkeuksellisesti kylmä ("exceptionally cold"; it is exceptional that it is cold, i.e. it is rarely cold at all)
    • The suffix is appended to the weak stem, i.e. one takes the -n off the genitive singular form and adds this suffix to it. The resulting adverb is comparable, if the base word is comparable: for example kauniisti, kauniimmin (more beautifully), kauneimmin (most beautifully). It can be appended to all adjectives, but also to selected nouns and numerals.
  • (multiplicative): Used only with small numbers, and with some pronouns; note that yksi (one)yhdesti (once) is not standard Finnish (compare kerran).
  • (intensifier): The suffix is often applied to a vulgar term: perkeleperkeleesti.

Synonyms edit

  • (expression of how many times something happens): kertaa

Derived terms edit

multiplicative
intensifier
adverbial suffix

See also edit

Anagrams edit