Alternative forms edit
Old Latin from Proto-Italic *djous patēr (“Jupiter”, literally “Sky Father”) from *djous + *patēr, from Proto-Indo-European *dyḗws (“sky god”, literally “the bright one”) from *dyew- (“to be bright, day sky”) + *ph₂tḗr (“father”). Essentially equivalent to diēs + pater; adds the title “Father” to Old Latin Diovis (“Jove”) whence the oblique cases of later forms of Diēspiter are derived by analogous formation (cf. Iuppiter, Iovis). Cognate of Umbrian 𐌉𐌖𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌄𐌓 (iupater); Sanskrit द्यौष्पितृ (Dyáuṣpitṛ́). Related by prime root to Diāna, dīvus, deus, and Ancient Greek Ζεύς (Zeús)—the Greek god to whom Roman Diēspiter is later equated—compare the equivalent vocative phrase in Doric Greek Δεῦ πάτερ (Deû páter), Attic Greek Ζεῦ πάτερ (Zeû páter, “O father Zeus”).
- (Classical) IPA(key): /diˈeːs.pi.ter/, [d̪iˈeːs̠pɪt̪ɛr]
- (modern Italianate Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /diˈes.pi.ter/, [d̪iˈɛspit̪er]
Proper noun edit
- (Old Latin, religion) Jupiter, Father Jove
- c. 205 BCE, Titus Maccius Plautus, Captivi, act IV, scene IV, lines 1–4:
- Diéspiter te dique, Ergasile, perdant et ventrem tuom, parasítosque omnis, et qui posthac cenam parasitis dabit. cladés calamitasque, intemperies módo in nostram advenit domum. quasi lúpus esuriens ille metui ne in me faceret impetum.
- May Jupiter and the Deities confound you, Ergasilus, and your stomach, and all Parasites, and every one who henceforth shall give a dinner to Parasites. Destruction and devastation and ruin have just now entered our house. I was afraid that he would be making an attack on me, as though he had been an hungry wolf.
- c. 150 CE, Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticæ, Book V, Chapter XII, lines 1–7:
- In antiquis precationibus nomina hæc deorum inesse animadvertimus: Diovis et Vediovis; est autem etiam ædes Vediovis Romæ inter Arcem et Capitolium. Eorum nominum rationem esse hanc comperi: Iovem Latini veteres a iuvando appellavere, eundemque alio vocabulo iuncto patrem dixerunt. Nam quod est, elisis aut inmutatis quibusdam litteris, Iupiter, id plenum atque integrum est Iovispater. Sic et Neptunuspater coniuncte dictus est et Saturnuspater et Ianuspater et Marspater—hoc enim est Marspiter—itemque Iovis Diespiter appellatus, id est diei et lucis pater. Idcircoque simili nomine Iovis Diovis dictus est et Lucetius, quod nos die et luce quasi vita ipsa afficeret et iuvaret. Lucetium autem Iovem Cn. Nævius in libris Belli Pœnici appellat.
- In ancient prayers we have observed the names of these gods: Diovis and Vediovis; furthermore, there is a temple of Vediovis at Rome, between the Citadel and Capitolium. The explanation of these names I have ascertained: the ancient Latins called Iovis from iuvare, and called the same god “father,” thus adding another word. For Iovispater is the full complete form, which becomes Iupiter by syncope or change of some letters. So also Neptunuspater is used as a compound, and Saturnuspater and Ianuspater and Marspater—for this is Marspiter—and Jove also was called Diespiter, that is, the father of day and of light. And thus by a name of similar origin Jove is called Diovis and also Lucetius, because he blesses and helps us by means of the day and the light, equal to life itself. And Lucetius is applied to Jove by Gn. Nævius in his poem on the Punic War.