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Iuppiter Tonans (late first century statue)

Alternative formsEdit


The nominative Iuppiter, for Iūpiter (with shift of the length from vowel to consonant per the "littera" rule), comes from a vocative combined with pater, and essentially meant "father Jove": Proto-Italic *djous patēr, from *djous (day, sky) + *patēr (father), from Proto-Indo-European *dyḗws (lit. the bright one), root nomen agentis from *dyew- (to be bright, day sky). It is cognate with Umbrian 𐌉𐌖𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌄𐌓 (iupater), and in other Indo-European branches also Sanskrit द्यौष्पितृ (dyauṣ-pitṛ), Ancient Greek Ζεῦ πάτερ (Zeû páter, o father Zeus).

The oblique cases Iov-, Iovis continue the inflection of Proto-Indo-European *dyḗws. Cognates are Latin diēs (from the accusative case) and Ancient Greek Ζεύς (Zeús).


Proper nounEdit

Iuppiter m (genitive Iovis); irregular declension

  1. The god Jupiter.
  2. (poetic) The sky.
  3. The planet Jupiter.
    • 1584, Johann Virdung of Hassfurt, De Cognoscendis, et Medendis Morbis ex Corporum Coelestium Positione:
      [f. 7r] Ex Peripneumonia, Apoplexia, Pleurisis cardiaca, Angina, [...] oriuntur.
      [f. 7v] HABENT Namque Planetae speciales influentias super humani corporis membra ob existentiam eorum in signis, vt in Ariete, Saturnus habet pectus. Iupiter ventrem. Mars caput. [etc.]


Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative Iuppiter Iovēs
genitive Iovis Iovum
dative Iovī Iovibus
accusative Iovem Iovēs
ablative Iove Iovibus
vocative Iuppiter Iovēs


Derived termsEdit


See alsoEdit


  • Iuppiter in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers