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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Contents

Proto-GermanicEdit

EtymologyEdit

The form is from either *ub + a nasal suffix representing an earlier *up-nó, related to *uppai (earlier *up-nóy) and *ubanē; or by analogy with *uppai.[1]

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

*upp

  1. up, upwards

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Gothic shows leveling with full-grade *eup-.

  • Old English: ūp, upp
    • Middle English: up
      • English: up
  • Old Frisian: uppa, oppa, up, op
    • Saterland Frisian: op, ap
    • West Frisian: op
  • Old Saxon: ūp
    • Middle Low German: up
  • Old Dutch: ūp
    • Middle Dutch: op
      • Dutch: op, (dialectal) oep
      • West Flemish: up, ip
  • Old High German: ūf
    • Middle High German: ūf
    • Old Rhine Franconian: uf
      • Middle Rhine Franconian: uf
        • Rhine Franconian: uff, off
          Pennsylvania German: uff
    • Old Central Franconian: *up
      • Middle Central Franconian: up
        • Central Franconian: op
          Kölsch: op
  • Old Norse: upp
    • Danish: op
    • Faroese: upp
    • Icelandic: upp
    • Norwegian: opp
    • Old Swedish: up
  • Gothic: 𐌹𐌿𐍀 (iup)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Guus Kroonen. The Proto-Germanic N-Stems: A Study in Diachronic Morphophonology. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2011