This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



The form is from either *ub + a nasal affix representing an earlier *up-nó, related to *uppai (earlier *up-nóy) and *ubanē; or by analogy with *uppai.[1]




  1. up, upwards

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit


Gothic shows leveling with full-grade *eup-.

  • Old English: ūp, upp
    • Middle English: up
      • English: up
      • Scots: up
  • Old Frisian: uppa, oppa, up, op
    • Saterland Frisian: op, ap
    • West Frisian: op
  • Old Saxon: ūp
    • Middle Low German: up
  • Old Dutch: ūp
    • Middle Dutch: op
      • Dutch: op, (dialectal) oep
      • West Flemish: up, ip
  • Old High German: ūf
    • Middle High German: ūf
    • Old Rhine Franconian: uf
      • Middle Rhine Franconian: uf
        • Rhine Franconian: uff, off
          Pennsylvania German: uff
    • Old Central Franconian: *up
      • Middle Central Franconian: up
        • Central Franconian: op
          Kölsch: op
  • Old Norse: upp
    • Danish: op
    • Faroese: upp
    • Icelandic: upp
    • Norwegian: opp
    • Old Swedish: up
  • Gothic: 𐌹𐌿𐍀 (iup)


  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus, The Proto-Germanic n-stems: A study in diachronic morphophonology, Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, 2011, →ISBN