Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-tós

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

SuffixEdit

*(Ø)-tós[1]

  1. Creates verbal adjectives from verb stems.

InflectionEdit

Thematic
masculine feminine
nominative *(Ø)-tós *(Ø)-téh₂
genitive *(Ø)-tósyo *(Ø)-téh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-tós *(Ø)-tóh₁ *(Ø)-tóes
vocative *(Ø)-té *(Ø)-tóh₁ *(Ø)-tóes
accusative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóh₁ *(Ø)-tóms
genitive *(Ø)-tósyo *? *(Ø)-tóHom
ablative *(Ø)-téad *? *(Ø)-tómos
dative *(Ø)-tóey *? *(Ø)-tómos
locative *(Ø)-téy, *(Ø)-tóy *? *(Ø)-tóysu
instrumental *(Ø)-tóh₁ *? *(Ø)-tṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-téh₂ *(Ø)-téh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-téh₂es
vocative *(Ø)-téh₂ *(Ø)-téh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-téh₂es
accusative *(Ø)-tā́m *(Ø)-téh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-téh₂m̥s
genitive *(Ø)-téh₂s *? *(Ø)-téh₂oHom
ablative *(Ø)-téh₂s *? *(Ø)-téh₂mos
dative *(Ø)-téh₂ey *? *(Ø)-téh₂mos
locative *(Ø)-téh₂, *(Ø)-téh₂i *? *(Ø)-téh₂su
instrumental *(Ø)-téh₂h₁ *? *(Ø)-téh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóy(h₁) *(Ø)-téh₂
vocative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóy(h₁) *(Ø)-téh₂
accusative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóy(h₁) *(Ø)-téh₂
genitive *(Ø)-tósyo *? *(Ø)-tóHom
ablative *(Ø)-téad *? *(Ø)-tómos
dative *(Ø)-tóey *? *(Ø)-tómos
locative *(Ø)-téy, *(Ø)-tóy *? *(Ø)-tóysu
instrumental *(Ø)-tóh₁ *? *(Ø)-tṓys

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-tas
    • Proto-Slavic: *-tъ (some past passive participles)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *-tós
  • Proto-Germanic: *-daz (all weak past participles, a few adjectives), *-taz, *-þaz, *-saz (post-consonantal allomorphs)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *-tás, *-dás (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *-tos

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN