Finnish edit

Etymology edit

By analogy with -us derivatives of verbs ending in -ttaa and -staa, which are plenty.

Suffix edit

-tus (front vowel harmony variant -tys, linguistic notation -tUs)

  1. Alternative form of -us (forms nouns from verbs, describing an action or event)

Usage notes edit

This variant of the suffix is used when the verb belongs to the conjugation classes:

  • 66 (rohkaista); the stem for the verb will be the consonant stem ending in -s-
  • 69 (valita); the stem for the verb will be the part prior to the final -ts-

Declension edit

Inflection of -tus (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -tus -tukset
genitive -tuksen -tusten
-tuksien
partitive -tusta -tuksia
illative -tukseen -tuksiin
singular plural
nominative -tus -tukset
accusative nom. -tus -tukset
gen. -tuksen
genitive -tuksen -tusten
-tuksien
partitive -tusta -tuksia
inessive -tuksessa -tuksissa
elative -tuksesta -tuksista
illative -tukseen -tuksiin
adessive -tuksella -tuksilla
ablative -tukselta -tuksilta
allative -tukselle -tuksille
essive -tuksena -tuksina
translative -tukseksi -tuksiksi
abessive -tuksetta -tuksitta
instructive -tuksin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -tus (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -tukseni -tukseni
accusative nom. -tukseni -tukseni
gen. -tukseni
genitive -tukseni -tusteni
-tuksieni
partitive -tustani -tuksiani
inessive -tuksessani -tuksissani
elative -tuksestani -tuksistani
illative -tukseeni -tuksiini
adessive -tuksellani -tuksillani
ablative -tukseltani -tuksiltani
allative -tukselleni -tuksilleni
essive -tuksenani -tuksinani
translative -tuksekseni -tuksikseni
abessive -tuksettani -tuksittani
instructive
comitative -tuksineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -tuksesi -tuksesi
accusative nom. -tuksesi -tuksesi
gen. -tuksesi
genitive -tuksesi -tustesi
-tuksiesi
partitive -tustasi -tuksiasi
inessive -tuksessasi -tuksissasi
elative -tuksestasi -tuksistasi
illative -tukseesi -tuksiisi
adessive -tuksellasi -tuksillasi
ablative -tukseltasi -tuksiltasi
allative -tuksellesi -tuksillesi
essive -tuksenasi -tuksinasi
translative -tukseksesi -tuksiksesi
abessive -tuksettasi -tuksittasi
instructive
comitative -tuksinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -tuksemme -tuksemme
accusative nom. -tuksemme -tuksemme
gen. -tuksemme
genitive -tuksemme -tustemme
-tuksiemme
partitive -tustamme -tuksiamme
inessive -tuksessamme -tuksissamme
elative -tuksestamme -tuksistamme
illative -tukseemme -tuksiimme
adessive -tuksellamme -tuksillamme
ablative -tukseltamme -tuksiltamme
allative -tuksellemme -tuksillemme
essive -tuksenamme -tuksinamme
translative -tukseksemme -tuksiksemme
abessive -tuksettamme -tuksittamme
instructive
comitative -tuksinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -tuksenne -tuksenne
accusative nom. -tuksenne -tuksenne
gen. -tuksenne
genitive -tuksenne -tustenne
-tuksienne
partitive -tustanne -tuksianne
inessive -tuksessanne -tuksissanne
elative -tuksestanne -tuksistanne
illative -tukseenne -tuksiinne
adessive -tuksellanne -tuksillanne
ablative -tukseltanne -tuksiltanne
allative -tuksellenne -tuksillenne
essive -tuksenanne -tuksinanne
translative -tukseksenne -tuksiksenne
abessive -tuksettanne -tuksittanne
instructive
comitative -tuksinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -tuksensa -tuksensa
accusative nom. -tuksensa -tuksensa
gen. -tuksensa
genitive -tuksensa -tustensa
-tuksiensa
partitive -tustaan
-tustansa
-tuksiaan
-tuksiansa
inessive -tuksessaan
-tuksessansa
-tuksissaan
-tuksissansa
elative -tuksestaan
-tuksestansa
-tuksistaan
-tuksistansa
illative -tukseensa -tuksiinsa
adessive -tuksellaan
-tuksellansa
-tuksillaan
-tuksillansa
ablative -tukseltaan
-tukseltansa
-tuksiltaan
-tuksiltansa
allative -tukselleen
-tuksellensa
-tuksilleen
-tuksillensa
essive -tuksenaan
-tuksenansa
-tuksinaan
-tuksinansa
translative -tuksekseen
-tukseksensa
-tuksikseen
-tuksiksensa
abessive -tuksettaan
-tuksettansa
-tuksittaan
-tuksittansa
instructive
comitative -tuksineen
-tuksinensa

Derived terms edit

Gothic edit

Romanization edit

-tus

  1. Romanization of -𐍄𐌿𐍃

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Italic *-tos, from Proto-Indo-European *-tós (suffix creating verbal adjectives).

Compare Proto-Slavic *-tъ, Proto-Germanic *-daz, *-taz.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-tus (feminine -ta, neuter -tum); first/second-declension suffix

  1. Forms the past participle of verbs.
  2. Forms adjectives having the sense "provided with".
    iūs (law, legality; equity, the right, justice)iūstus (lawful, legal; equitable, rightful, just)
    onus (a burden or load, especially one excessive in magnitude)onustus (burdened”, “heavily laden”, “overencumbered by a load)
Usage notes edit

Verb stems may be modified by the attachment of this suffix in certain predictable or unpredictable ways:

  • Stem-final b and g are regularly devoiced to p and c respectively. If the stem ends in a short vowel directly followed by g, this vowel is usually lengthened (due to Lachmann's Law) but sometimes remains short (especially after the high vowel i, as in cōnstrictus from cōnstringō or fictus from fingō).
    agō (lead) + ‎-tus → ‎āctus
    scrībō (write) + ‎-tus → ‎scrīptus
  • Stem-final qu is delabialised, giving c. Likewise, stem-final ngu is delabialized to nc.
    coquō (cook) + ‎-tus → ‎coctus
    exstinguō (extinguish) + ‎-tus → ‎exstīnctus
  • Stem-final v either merges with the preceding vowel (yielding the diphthong au in the case of -av-, or the long vowels ō and ū in the case of -ov- and -uv-/-u-) or is replaced with c. These are the expected outcomes of the distinct Proto-Italic consonants *w and *gʷ, respectively, which merged between vowels in Latin as -v-. However, Latin c in this context does not always descend from original Proto-Italic *gʷ, because analogical changes took place after the merger and affected the distribution of c.
    caveō (beware) + ‎-tus → ‎cautus
    voveō (vow) + ‎-tus → ‎vōtus
    iuvō (aid) + ‎-tus → ‎iūtus
    vīvō (live) + ‎-tus → ‎vīctus
    solvō (untie,set free,separate) + ‎-tus → ‎solūtus
  • Stem-final d or t fuses with the t of the suffix, giving -ssus. This is simplified to -sus if not preceded by a short vowel. Similarly to g-final stems, d-final stems sometimes (but not always) have lengthened vowels in the past participle due to Lachmann's Law.
    cadō (fall) + ‎-tus → ‎cāsus
  • Stem-final rg also fuses with the t, giving -rsus.
    mergō (plunge) + ‎-tus → ‎mersus
    tergeō (rub, cleanse) + ‎-tus → ‎tersus
  • Stem final ll or rr sometimes fuses with the t, to -lsus and -rsus respectively.
    currō (run) + ‎-tus → ‎cursus
  • When attached to stems of 1st, 2nd or 4th conjugation verbs, the long vowel at the end of the present stem may be either retained unchanged, replaced by short -i-, or dropped entirely. It's retained for most 1st conjugation verbs, while it becomes short i for many 2nd conjugation verbs:
  1. errō (errā-) (wander) + ‎-tus → ‎errātus , ‎audiō (audī-) (hear) + ‎-tus → ‎audītus
  2. moneō (monē-) (advise,remind) + ‎-tus → ‎monitus
  3. augeō (augē-) (increase) + ‎-tus → ‎auctus

Noun stems generally do not exhibit these modifications; there are some adjectives ending in -stus that originate from s-stem nouns, such as onustus, scelestus, but overall the suffix is rarely found attached directly to a consonant-final noun stem. Most derivatives in -tus from nouns include a long vowel before the -t-, which may in some cases originate partly or wholly from the final vowel of the stem (for example, barbātus from barba and aurītus from auris[1]), but which at least eventually was subject to reanalysis as part of the suffix; see -ātus, -ītus, -ūtus.

Declension edit

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -tus -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
Genitive -tī -tae -tī -tōrum -tārum -tōrum
Dative -tō -tō -tīs
Accusative -tum -tam -tum -tōs -tās -ta
Ablative -tō -tā -tō -tīs
Vocative -te -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Italic *-tus, from Proto-Indo-European *-tus (suffix deriving action nouns from verb roots).

Compare Proto-Germanic *-þuz, Ancient Greek -τύς (-tús), Proto-Slavic *-tъ.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-tus m (genitive -tūs); fourth declension

  1. Forms action nouns from verbs.
    cadō + ‎-tus → ‎cāsus
    habeō (I have, possess, have on, carry, wear) + ‎-tus → ‎habitus (a state or condition of being, physical character, demeanour, style of dress)
    sūmō (I spend [time, effort, money, etc.]) + ‎-tus → ‎sūmptus (expenditure)
Usage notes edit

The verb stem undergoes the same modifications as for the participle suffix; see -sus.

Declension edit

Fourth-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -tus -tūs
Genitive -tūs -tuum
Dative -tuī -tibus
Accusative -tum -tūs
Ablative -tū -tibus
Vocative -tus -tūs
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts (abstract-noun forming suffix). Compare Proto-Celtic *-tūss, Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs). See -tās.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-tūs f (genitive -tūtis); third declension

  1. Forms collective/abstract nouns from adjectives or other nouns.
    iuvenis (young, a young man)iuventūs (the young, young men collectively; the period or qualities of youthful manhood, youth)
    senex (an old man)senectūs (old men collectively; the period or condition of old age)
Usage notes edit

Same as for the participle suffix.

Declension edit

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -tūs -tūtēs
Genitive -tūtis -tūtum
Dative -tūtī -tūtibus
Accusative -tūtem -tūtēs
Ablative -tūte -tūtibus
Vocative -tūs -tūtēs
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Proto-Italic *-tos. Compare Ancient Greek -τός (-tós), found in the adverb ἐντός (entós, within), and Sanskrit -तस् (-tas), found as an ablatival ending in अतस् (átas), अग्रतस् (agratás).[2]

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-tus (not comparable)

  1. -ly; used to form adverbs.
Synonyms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Pike, Moss (2011) Latin -tās and Related Forms[1]. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Page 37
  2. ^ Rosén, H. (2007). "A Latin adverbialization: -(i)tus from separative-locative to manner adverb." Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics, 120, 215–230. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40849301