See also: TUS, tus, tus', tuş, tuš, tús, tùs, and tüs




  1. Romanization of -𐍄𐌿𐍃


Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Italic *-tos, from Proto-Indo-European *-tós (suffix creating verbal adjectives).

Compare Proto-Slavic *-tъ, Proto-Germanic *-daz, *-taz.



-tus (feminine -ta, neuter -tum); first/second-declension suffix

  1. Forms the past participle of verbs.
  2. Forms adjectives having the sense "provided with".
    iūs (law, legality; equity, the right, justice)iūstus (lawful, legal; equitable, rightful, just)
    onus (a burden or load, especially one excessive in magnitude)onustus (burdened”, “heavily laden”, “overencumbered by a load)
Usage notesEdit

Verb stems may be modified by the attachment of this suffix in certain predictable or unpredictable ways:

  • Stem-final b and g are regularly devoiced to p and c respectively. If the stem ends in a short vowel and g, this vowel is usually lengthened (due to Lachmann's Law) but sometimes remains short (especially after the high vowel i, as in cōnstrictus from cōnstringō or fictus from fingō).
    agō (lead) + ‎-tus → ‎āctus
    scrībō (write) + ‎-tus → ‎scrīptus
  • A stem-final qu is delabialised, giving c.
    coquō (cook) + ‎-tus → ‎coctus
  • Stem-final v cannot stand before t and is replaced with either u (forming a diphthong or long ū) or c. These are the expected outcomes of the distinct Proto-Italic consonants *w and *gʷ, respectively, which merged between vowels as Latin v. But Latin c in this context does not always correspond regularly to an original Proto-Italic *gʷ, because analogical changes took place after the merger and affected the distribution of c.
    vīvō (live) + ‎-tus → ‎vīctus
    solvō (untie,set free,separate) + ‎-tus → ‎solūtus
  • A stem-final d or t fuses with the t of the suffix, giving -ssus. This is simplified to -sus if not preceded by a short vowel. Similarly to g-final stems, d-final stems sometimes (but not always) have lengthened vowels in the past participle due to Lachmann's Law.
    cadō (fall) + ‎-tus → ‎cāsus
  • A stem-final rg also fuses with the t, giving -rsus.
    mergō (plunge) + ‎-tus → ‎mersus
  • A stem final ll or rr sometimes fuses with the t, to -lsus and -rsus respectively.
    currō (run) + ‎-tus → ‎cursus
  • When attached to stems of 1st, 2nd or 4th conjugation verbs, the long stem-final vowel may be either retained unchanged, replaced by short -i-, or dropped entirely. It's retained for most 1st conjugation verbs, while it becomes short i for many 2nd conjugation verbs:
  1. errō (errā-) (wander) + ‎-tus → ‎errātus , ‎audiō (audī-) (hear) + ‎-tus → ‎audītus
  2. moneō (monē-) (advise,remind) + ‎-tus → ‎monitus
  3. augeō (augē-) (increase) + ‎-tus → ‎auctus

Noun stems generally do not exhibit these modifications; there are some adjectives ending in -stus that originate from s-stem nouns, such as onustus, scelestus, but overall the suffix is rarely found attached directly to a consonant-final noun stem. Most derivatives in -tus from nouns include a long vowel before the -t-, which may in some cases originate partly or wholly from the final vowel of the stem (for example, barbātus from barba and aurītus from auris[1]), but which at least eventually was subject to reanalysis as part of the suffix; see -ātus, -ītus, -ūtus.


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -tus -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
Genitive -tī -tae -tī -tōrum -tārum -tōrum
Dative -tō -tō -tīs
Accusative -tum -tam -tum -tōs -tās -ta
Ablative -tō -tā -tō -tīs
Vocative -te -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Italic *-tus, from Proto-Indo-European *-tus (suffix deriving action nouns from verb roots).

Compare Proto-Germanic *-þuz, Ancient Greek -τύς (-tús), Proto-Slavic *-tu (whence Czech -tí).



-tus m (genitive -tūs); fourth declension

  1. Forms action nouns from verbs.
    cadō + ‎-tus → ‎cāsus
    habeō (I have, possess, have on, carry, wear) + ‎-tus → ‎habitus (a state or condition of being, physical character, demeanour, style of dress)
    sūmō (I spend [time, effort, money, etc.]) + ‎-tus → ‎sūmptus (expenditure)
Usage notesEdit

The verb stem undergoes the same modifications as for the participle suffix; see -sus.


Fourth-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -tus -tūs
Genitive -tūs -tuum
Dative -tuī -tibus
Accusative -tum -tūs
Ablative -tū -tibus
Vocative -tus -tūs
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts (abstract-noun forming suffix). Compare Proto-Celtic *-tūss, Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs). See -tās.



-tūs f (genitive -tūtis); third declension

  1. Forms collective/abstract nouns from adjectives or other nouns.
    iuvenis (young, a young man)iuventūs (the young, young men collectively; the period or qualities of youthful manhood, youth)
    senex (an old man)senectūs (old men collectively; the period or condition of old age)
Usage notesEdit

Same as for the participle suffix.


Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -tūs -tūtēs
Genitive -tūtis -tūtum
Dative -tūtī -tūtibus
Accusative -tūtem -tūtēs
Ablative -tūte -tūtibus
Vocative -tūs -tūtēs
Derived termsEdit


  1. ^ Pike, Moss (2011) Latin -tās and Related Forms[1]. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Page 37