This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Continues Proto-Balto-Slavic *beź, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰe (instrumental particle) + Proto-Indo-European *-ǵʰs (out). Cognate with Lithuanian , Latvian bez, Old Prussian bhe, and likely Sanskrit बहिस् (bahís, outside). The first element is probably the same as that in Proto-Slavic *bo (for), Lithuanian (really), Ancient Greek φή (phḗ, like, as)[1], Avestan 𐬠𐬁(, indeed).



  1. (with genitive) without
    Antonyms: *sъ(n), *ba


Further readingEdit


  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “φή”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1565
  2. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*bez(ъ)”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 38: “prep. ‘without’”
  3. ^ Olander, Thomas (2001), “bez”, in Common Slavic accentological word list, Copenhagen: Editiones Olander: “(prep. and prefix) (PR 146)”