Translingual edit

Etymology edit

Abbreviation of English Belarusian

Symbol edit

be

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Belarusian.

English edit

 
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Etymology 1 edit

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From Middle English been (to be).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

be (highly irregular; see conjugation table)

  1. As an auxiliary verb:
    1. (auxiliary) Used with past participles of verbs to form the passive voice.
      The dog was saved by the boy.
      • 1995, C. K. Ogden, Psyche: An Annual General and Linguistic Psychology 1920-1952, C. K. Ogden, →ISBN, page 13:
        Study courses of Esperanto and Ido have been broadcast.
    2. Used with present participles of verbs to form the continuous aspect.
      The woman is walking.
      I shall be writing to you soon.
      We liked to chat while we were eating.
      • 1995, C. K. Ogden, Psyche: An Annual General and Linguistic Psychology 1920-1952, C. K. Ogden, →ISBN, page 13:
        In the possibility of radio uses of a constructed language — and such experiments are proving successful—vast sums of money and untold social forces may be involved.
    3. (formal) Used with to-infinitives of verbs to express intent, obligation, appropriateness, or relative future occurrence.
      I am to leave tomorrow.
      They are to stay here until I return.
      The season opener was to have been on Monday.
      How were they to know the whole exercise was a ruse?
      They were to have been married overseas but COVID forced a change of plans.
    4. Used with past participles of certain intransitive verbs to form the perfect aspect.
      He is finished
      He is gone
      (archaic) He is come
      • c. 1606 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Macbeth”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act I, scene iv], page 133:
        They are not yet come back.
        instead of the modern They have not yet come back.
      • 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], →OCLC, Revelation 18:2:
        And he cryed mightily with a strõg voyce, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of deuils []
      • 1850, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, The Blessed Damozel, ll.67-68:
        ‘I wish that he were come to me, / For he will come,’ she said.
      • Matthew 28:6 (various translations, from the King James Version of 1611 to Revised Version of 1881):
        He is not here; for he is risen [].
      • 1922, A. E. Housman, Last Poems XXV, l.13, page 51:
        The King with half the East at heel is marched from lands of morning;
      • 1965, J. Robert Oppenheimer, The Decision to Drop the Bomb:
        I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita: Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and, to impress him, he takes on his multi-armed form and says, "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." I suppose we all thought that, one way or another.
      • 1985, Cormac McCarthy, Blood Meridian, page 4:
        His origins are become remote as is his destiny and not again in all the world’s turning will there be terrains so wild and barbarous to try whether the stuff of creation may be shaped to man’s will or whether his own heart is not another kind of clay.
    5. (African-American Vernacular, Caribbean, Ireland, auxiliary, not conjugated) To tend to do, often do; marks the habitual aspect.
      • 1996, David Sheffield, Barry W. Blaustein, Tom Shadyac and Steve Oedekerk, screenplay of The Nutty Professor
        Women be shoppin’! You cannot stop a woman from shoppin’!
      • 2020, Moneybagg Yo, Thug Cry:
        Niggas be tellin' these bitches 'bout business
  2. As a copulative verb:
    1. (with there, or dialectally it, as dummy subject) To exist.
      There is just one woman in town who can help us.
      (or, dialectally:) It is just one woman in town who can help us.
      • c. 1596–1598 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Merchant of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act IV, scene i], page 178:
        Some men there are loue not a gaping Pigge: / Some that are mad, if they behold a Cat: / And others, when the bag-pipe sings i’th nose, / Cannot containe their Vrine for affection.
      • 1817 (date written), [Jane Austen], chapter IX, in Persuasion; published in Northanger Abbey: And Persuasion. [], volume IV, London: John Murray, [], 20 December 1817 (indicated as 1818), →OCLC, page 170:
        "There is a sort of domestic enjoyment to be known even in a crowd, and this you had."
      • 2011 July 6, Mark Sweney, The Guardian:
        "There has been lots of commentary on who is staying and who is staying out and this weekend will be the real test," said one senior media buying agency executive who has pulled the advertising for one major client.
    2. Used to indicate that the subject and object are identical or equivalent.
      Hi, I’m Jim.
      3 times 5 is fifteen.
      These four are the ones going to the quarter-finals.
      François Mitterrand was president of France from 1981 to 1995.
      This is how we do it.
    3. Used to indicate that the subject is an instance of the predicate nominal.
      Rex is a dog.
      A dog is an animal.
      Dogs are animals.
    4. Used to indicate that the subject has the qualities described by an adjective, prepositional phrase.
      The sky is blue.
      Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done. (Luke 22:42)
    5. Used to indicate that the subject has the qualities described by a noun or noun phrase.
      The sky is a deep blue today.
    6. Used to link a subject to a measurement.
      This building is three hundred years old.
      I am 75 kilograms.
      He’s about 6 feet tall.
    7. (with a cardinal numeral) Used to state the age of a subject in years.
      I’m 20 (years old).
    8. (with a dummy subject it) Used to indicate the time of day.
      It is almost eight (o’clock).
      It’s 8:30 [read eight-thirty] in Tokyo.
      What time is it there? It’s night.
    9. (with since) Used to indicate passage of time since the occurrence of an event.
      It has been three years since my grandmother died. (similar to "My grandmother died three years ago", but emphasizes the intervening period)
      It had been six days since his departure, when I received a letter from him.
    10. (rare and regional, chiefly in the past tense) Used to link two noun clauses, the first of which is a day of the week, recurring date, month, or other specific time (on which the event of the main clause took place), and the second of which is a period of time indicating how long ago that day was. [from 15th c.]
      I saw her Monday was a week: I saw her a week ago last Monday (a week before last Monday).
      On the morning of Sunday was fortnight before Christmas: on the morning of the Sunday that was two weeks before the Sunday prior to Christmas.
      • 1748, [Samuel Richardson], Clarissa. Or, The History of a Young Lady: [], volume V, London: [] S[amuel] Richardson;  [], →OCLC, page 97:
        Miss Lardner (whom you have seen at her cousin Biddulph's) saw you at St James's church on Sunday was fortnight.
      • 1770, Historical Memoirs of the Irish Rebellion, in the year 1641 [] In a letter to Walter Harris, Esq; [By John Curry.] The fourth edition, with corrections throughout the whole, and large additions, by the author, Ireland, page 186:
        And so, without as much as to return home to furnish myself for such a journey, volens, nolens, they prevailed, or rather forced me to come to Dublin to confer with those colonels, and that was the last August was twelvemonth.
      • 1803, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Journals of the House of Commons, page 249:
        That they were present at the Election in August was Twelvemonth, at which there was the strictest Scrutiny that ever they saw in their Lives, by all the Four Candidates.
      • 1815 February 24, [Walter Scott], chapter V, in Guy Mannering; or, The Astrologer. [], volume I, Edinburgh: [] James Ballantyne and Co. for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, []; and Archibald Constable and Co., [], →OCLC, pages 79-80:
        Allow me to recommend some of the kipper—It was John Hay that catched it Saturday was three weeks.
      • 1859, George Eliot [pseudonym; Mary Ann Evans], “The Quest”, in Adam Bede [], volume III, Edinburgh, London: William Blackwood and Sons, →OCLC, book fifth, page 53:
        “Did there come no young woman here—very young and pretty—Friday was a fortnight, to see Dinah Morris?”
      • 1895, Miss M. E. Rope of Suffolk, quoted by Joseph Wright, in The English Dialect Dictionary, page 202:
        'Twas there to-morrow is a week.
      • 1907, John Millington Synge, The Playboy of the Western World, I, page 20:
        I killed my poor father, Tuesday was a week, for doing the like of that.
      • 1920 (published), St. George Kieran Hyland, A Century of Persecution Under Tudor and Stuart Sovereigns from Contemporary Records, London, Paul, page 402, quoting an earlier document, Loosley volume 5, no. 28, "List of Prisoners: In Sir W. More's handwriting":
        Theobald Green gent dead in the Marshalsea in August was twelvemonth
        John Grey gent delivered out of the Marshalsea about August last by Mr. Secretary and remains in St. Mary Overies.
        John Jacob gent delivered out of the Marsh. the XVII of May was twelvemonth and sent to Bridewell by order of the Council.
    11. (often impersonal, with it as a dummy subject) Used to indicate weather, air quality, or the like.
      It is hot in Arizona, but it is not usually humid.
      Why is it so dark in here?
    12. (dynamic / lexical be, especially in progressive tenses, conjugated non-suppletively in the present tense, see usage notes) To exist or behave in a certain way.
      • 2006 October 9, Kristin Newman (writer), Barney Stinson (character), How I Met Your Mother, season 2, episode 1:
        "When I get sad, I stop being sad and be awesome instead."
      "What do we do?" "We be ourselves."
      Just be yourself.
      Why is he being nice to me?
  3. As an intransitive lexical verb:
    1. (now usually literary) To exist; to have real existence, to be alive.
      The Universe has no explanation: it just is.
      That was the week that was.
      • 1526, [William Tyndale, transl.], The Newe Testamẽt [] (Tyndale Bible), [Worms, Germany: Peter Schöffer], →OCLC, Matthew ij:[18], folio iij, recto:
        Rachel wepynge ffor her chyldren / and wolde nott be comforted becauſe they were not.
      • c. 1599–1602 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act III, scene iii], page 265:
        To be, or not to be: that is the question: / Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer / The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, / Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, / And by opposing end them?
      • 1603, Michel de Montaigne, chapter 12, in John Florio, transl., The Essayes [], book II, London: [] Val[entine] Simmes for Edward Blount [], →OCLC, page 351:
        [] it were great sottishnesse, and apparent false-hood, to say, that that is which is not yet in being, or that already hath ceased from being.
      • 1643, Thomas Browne, Religio Medici, II.2, link:
        There is surely a peece of Divinity in us, something that was before the Elements, and owes no homage unto the Sun.
      • 1893, Andrew Martin Fairbairn, Christ in the Centuries, and Other Sermons, 2nd edition, volume 12, E.P. Dutton & Company, page 116:
        And after this death there is to be no resurrection. The old man of sin has ceased to be; once crucified, he lives no more. The death is utter; the end complete.
      • 1969 December 7, Monty Python, “Full Frontal Nudity, Dead Parrot sketch”, in Monty Python's Flying Circus, spoken by Mr Praline (John Cleese):
        This parrot is no more! It has ceased to be! It's expired and gone to meet its maker! This is a late parrot! It's a stiff! Bereft of life, it rests in peace! If you hadn't nailed it to the perch it would be pushing up the daisies!
      • 2004 December 13, Richard Schickel, “Not Just an African Story”, in Time:
        The genial hotel manager of the past is no more. Now owner of a trucking concern and living in Belgium, Rusesabagina says the horrors he witnessed in Rwanda "made me a different man."
    2. To remain undisturbed in a certain state or situation.
      Let them be for a few hours.
      Leave us be until the guests arrive.
    3. To occupy a place.
      The cup is on the table.
    4. To occur, to take place.
      When will the meeting be?
    5. (in perfect tenses) Elliptical form of "be here", "go to and return from" or similar, also extending to certain other senses of "go".
      The postman has been today, but my tickets have still not yet come.
      I have been to Spain many times.
      We've been about twenty miles.
      I have terrible constipation – I haven't been for several days.
      They have been through a great deal of trouble.
Usage notes edit
  • When used copulatively with a pronoun, traditional grammar puts the pronoun in the subjective case (I, he, she, we, they) rather than the objective case (me, him, her, us, them), regardless of which side of the copula it is placed. For example, “I was the masked man” and “The masked man was I” would both be considered correct, while “The masked man was me” and “Me was the masked man” would both be incorrect. However, most colloquial speech treats the verb be as transitive, in which case the pronoun is used in the objective case if it occurs after the copula: “I was the masked man” but “The masked man was me”. This paradigm applies even if the copula is linking two pronouns; thus “I am her” and “She is me", and “Am I me?” (versus the traditional “I am she”, “She is I”, “Am I I?”). However, the use of whom with a copula is generally considered incorrect and a hypercorrection, though in some cases (especially in sentences involving a to-infinitive or a perfect tense), such as “Whom do you want to be?”, it can come naturally to some speakers; in short, straightforward sentences, such as “Whom are you?”, this is much rarer and likelier to be considered incorrect.
  • In most copulative and intransitive con-copulative senses be is generally a stative verb that rarely takes the continuous aspect. See Category:English stative verbs.
Conjugation edit

Modern

Archaic

  • The verb be is the most irregular non-defective verb in Standard English. Unlike other verbs, which distinguish at most five forms (as in dodoesdoingdiddone), be distinguishes eight:
    • Be itself is the plain form, used as the infinitive, as the imperative, and as the present subjunctive (though many speakers do not distinguish the present indicative and present subjunctive, using the indicative forms for both).
      I want to be a father someday. (infinitive)
      If that be true... (present subjunctive; is is common in this position)
      Allow the truth to be heard! (infinitive)
      Please be here by eight o’clock. (imperative)
      The librarian asked that the rare books not be touched. (present subjunctive; speakers that do not distinguish the subjunctive and indicative would use an auxiliary verb construction here)
    • Be is also used as the present tense indicative form in the alternative, dynamic / lexical conjugation of be:
      What do we do? We be ourselves. (first-person plural present indicative, lexical be)
      but: Who are we? We are human beings. (first-person plural present indicative, copula be)
    • It is also an archaic alternative form of the indicative, especially in the plural:[1]
      The powers that be, are ordained of God. (Romans 13:1, Tyndale Bible, 1526)[2]
      We are true men; we are no spies: We be twelve brethren... (Genesis 42:31–2, King James Version, 1611)[3]
      I think it be thine indeed, for thou liest in it. (Hamlet, Act V, Scene 1, circa 1600 – though this may be viewed as the subjunctive instead)[4]
    • Am, are, and is are the forms of the present indicative. Am is the first-person singular (used with I); is is the third-person singular (used with he, she, it and other subjects that would be used with does rather than do); and are is both the second-person singular and the plural (used with we, you, they, and any other plural subjects).
      Am I in the right place? (first-person singular present indicative)
      You are even taller than your brother! (second-person singular present indicative)
      Where is the library? (third-person singular present indicative)
      These are the biggest shoes we have. (plural present indicative)
    • Was and were are the forms of the past indicative and past subjunctive (like did). In the past indicative, was is the first- and third-person singular (used with I, as well as with he, she, it and other subjects that would be used with does rather than do), and were is both the second-person singular and the plural (used with we, you, they, and any other plural subjects). In the traditional past subjunctive, were is used with all subjects, though many speakers do not actually distinguish the past subjunctive from the past indicative, and therefore use was with first- and third-person singular subjects even in cases where other speakers would use were.
      I was out of town. (first-person singular past indicative)
      You were the first person here. (second-person singular past indicative)
      The room was dirty. (third-person singular past indicative)
      We were angry at each other. (plural past indicative)
      I wish I were more sure. (first-person singular past subjunctive; was is also common, though considered less correct by some)
      If she were here, she would know what to do. (third-person singular past subjunctive; was is also common, though considered less correct by some)
    • Being is the gerund and present participle, used in progressive aspectual forms, after various catenative verbs, and in other constructions that function like nouns, adjectivally or adverbially. (It’s also used as a deverbal noun and as a conjunction; see those senses in the entry for being itself.)
      Being in London and being in Tokyo have similar rewards but in different languages. (gerund in grammatical subject)
      All of a sudden, he’s being nice to everyone. (present participle in progressive aspect)
      His mood being good increased his productivity noticeably. (present participle in adjectival phrase)
      It won’t stop being a problem until someone does something about it. (gerund after catenative verb)
    • Been is the past participle, used in the perfect aspect. In Middle English, it was also the infinitive.
      It’s been that way for a week and a half.
  • In archaic or obsolete forms of English, with the pronoun thou, the verb be has a few additional forms:
    • When the pronoun thou was in regular use, the forms art, wast, and wert were the corresponding present indicative, past indicative, and past subjunctive, respectively.
    • As thou became less common and more highly marked, a special present-subjunctive form beest developed (replacing the regular present subjunctive form be, still used with all other subjects). Additionally, the form wert, previously a past subjunctive form, came to be used as a past indicative as well.
  • The forms am, is, and are can contract with preceding subjects: I’m (I am), ’s (is), ’re (are). The form are most commonly contracts with personal pronouns (we’re (we are), you’re (you are), they’re (they are)), but contractions with other subjects are possible; the form is contracts quite freely with a variety of subjects. These contracted forms, however, are possible only when there is an explicit, non-preposed complement, and they cannot be stressed; therefore, the contractions cannot appear at the end of a sentence. Instead one must use the full forms, such as:
    Who’s here? —I am.
    I wonder what it is.
  • Several of the finite forms of be have special negative forms, containing the suffix -n’t, that can be used instead of adding the adverb not. Specifically, the forms is, are, was, and were have the negative forms isn’t, aren’t, wasn’t, and weren’t. The form be itself does not, even in finite uses, with “not be” being used in the present subjunctive and “do not be” or “don’t be” (or, in dated use, “be not”) being used in the imperative. The form am has the negative forms aren’t, amn’t, and ain’t, but all of these are in restricted use; see their entries for details.
  • Outside of Standard English, there is some variation in usage of some forms; some dialects, for example, use is or ’s throughout the present indicative (supplanting, in whole or in part, am and are), and/or was throughout the past indicative and past subjunctive (supplanting were).
Alternative forms edit
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit
phrasal verbs etc. derived from be
Translations edit

Further reading edit

Etymology 2 edit

A variant of by which goes back to Middle English be (variant of Middle English bi).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

be

  1. (dialectal, possibly dated) Alternative form of by. Also found in compounds, especially oaths, e.g. begorra.
    • 1851, Oliver Ormerod, Felley fro Rachde:
      O ful tru un pertikler akeawnt o... th' greyt Eggshibishun. Be o felley fro Rachde.
    • 1860, Henry Baird, The Song of Solomon in the Devonshire Dialect, i 8:
      Go thy way vorth be tha vootsteps uv tha vlock.
    • 1870, Joseph Philip Robson, Evangeline: The Spirit of Progress, section 332:
      Aw teuk me seat be day an' neet.
    • 1870, Roger Piketah, Forness Folk, section 44:
      Fetchin' it yan... be a round about rooad.
    • 1878, John Castillo, Poems in the North Yorkshire Dialect, section 35:
      Like a leeaf be firm decree / Mun fade an' fall.
    • 1885, Alfred Lord Tennyson, To-morrow:
      ‘I'll meet you agin to-morra,’ says he, ‘be the chapel-door.’

Etymology 3 edit

Borrowed from Russian бэ ().

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be (plural bes)

  1. The name of the Cyrillic script letter Б / б.

References edit

  1. ^ Goold Brown (1851) “Of Verbs”, in The Grammar of English Grammars, [], New York, N.Y.: [] Samuel S. & William Wood, [], page 357.
  2. ^ [William Tyndale, transl.] (1526) The Newe Testamẽt [] (Tyndale Bible), [Worms, Germany]: [Peter Schöffer], →OCLC, Romans xiij:[1], folio ccxiij, recto:The powers that be / are ordeyned off God.
  3. ^ The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], 1611, →OCLC, Genesis 42:31–32, column 2.:We are true men; we are no ſpies. We be twelue brethren []
  4. ^ William Shakespeare (c. 1599–1602) “The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act V, scene i], page 277, column 2:I thinke it be thine indeed: for thou lieſt in’t.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Joseph Wright, editor (1898), “BE”, in The English Dialect Dictionary: [], volumes I (A–C), London: Henry Frowde, [], publisher to the English Dialect Society, []; New York, N.Y.: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, →OCLC.

Anagrams edit

Albanian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Albanian *bẹðə < *baidā, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰoydʰ-eh₂ < *bʰeydʰ- (to persuade).[1] Compare Old English bād (pledge, expectation), Proto-Slavic *bě̄dà, Ancient Greek πείθω (peíthō), Latin foedus.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be f (plural be, definite beja, definite plural betë)

  1. oath
  2. vow, swearing

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Schumacher, Stefan, Matzinger, Joachim (2013) Die Verben des Altalbanischen: Belegwörterbuch, Vorgeschichte und Etymologie (Albanische Forschungen; 33) (in German), Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, →ISBN, page 236

Balinese edit

Romanization edit

be

  1. Romanization of ᬩᬾ

Basque edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be inan

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.

Declension edit

See also edit

Blagar edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be

  1. pig

References edit

Catalan edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be f (plural bes)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.
Usage notes edit
  • In some dialects of Catalan, the sounds associated with the letter b and the letter v are the same: [b ~ β]. In order to differentiate be and ve in those dialects, the letters are often called be alta (high B) and ve baixa (low V).
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Onomatopoeic from the sound of a lamb.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be m (plural bens)

  1. sheep, ram, ewe, lamb; an individual of the species Ovis aries
Hyponyms edit

Further reading edit

Dorasque edit

Noun edit

be

  1. (Changuena, Chumulu, Gualaca) night

References edit

  • Alphonse Louis Pinart, Vocabulario Castellano-dorasque, Dialectos Chumulu, Gualaca Y Changuina (1890)

East Central German edit

Etymology edit

From Old High German , from Proto-Germanic *bi. Compare German bei.

Preposition edit

be

  1. (Erzgebirgisch) at; with; by; near; (close) to

Further reading edit

  • 2020 June 11, Hendrik Heidler, Hendrik Heidler's 400 Seiten: Echtes Erzgebirgisch: Wuu de Hasen Hoosn haaßn un de Hosen Huusn do sei mir drhamm: Das Original Wörterbuch: Ratgeber und Fundgrube der erzgebirgischen Mund- und Lebensart: Erzgebirgisch – Deutsch / Deutsch – Erzgebirgisch[1], 3. geänderte Auflage edition, Norderstedt: BoD – Books on Demand, →ISBN, →OCLC, page 21:

Eastern Geshiza edit

Noun edit

be

  1. Flood.

Verb edit

be (1b)

  1. To flood, overflow.

References edit

  • Honkalaso, Sami. 2019. A Grammar of Eastern Geshiza: A Culturally Anchored Description. University of Helsinki: PhD dissertation.

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

Onomatopoeic.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈbe]
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Hyphenation: '‧be

Interjection edit

be

  1. The characteristic cry of a sheep.

Derived terms edit

Faroese edit

Noun edit

be n (genitive singular bes, plural be)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.

Declension edit

Declension of be
n4 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative be beið be beini
accusative be beið be beini
dative be, bei benum beum beunum
genitive bes besins bea beanna

See also edit

Guerrero Amuzgo edit

Adjective edit

be

  1. red

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

be (comparative beljebb, superlative legbeljebb)

  1. in (towards the interior of a defined space, such as a building or room)
    Antonym: ki

Usage notes edit

This term may also be part of the split form of a verb prefixed with be-, occurring when the main verb does not follow the prefix directly. It can be interpreted only with the related verb form, irrespective of its position in the sentence, e.g. meg tudták volna nézni (they could have seen it, from megnéz). For verbs with this prefix, see be-; for an overview, Appendix:Hungarian verbal prefixes.

Derived terms edit

Compound words

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

  • (adverb: “in”): be in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (interjection-like adverb: “how…!”; a dated, poetic synonym of de): be in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • be in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2024)

Anagrams edit

Iau edit

Noun edit

be

  1. fire

Further reading edit

Bill Palmer, The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area (→ISBN, 2017), page 531, table 95, Comparative basic vocabulary in Lakes Plain Languages

Ido edit

Etymology edit

From b +‎ -e.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be (plural be-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter B/b.

See also edit

Indonesian edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch bee.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.

Synonyms edit

  • bi (Standard Malay)

See also edit

Further reading edit

Italian edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be f (invariable)

  1. (regional, obsolete) Alternative form of bi

References edit

  1. ^ be in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)

Further reading edit

  • be in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

be

  1. The hiragana syllable (be) or the katakana syllable (be) in Hepburn romanization.

Karajá edit

Noun edit

be

  1. water

References edit

  • David Lee Fortune, Gramática Karajá: um Estudo Preliminar em Forma Transformacional

Latin edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

 f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter B.

Coordinate terms edit

References edit

  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), part III: “Summary of the Ancient Evidence”, page 32: "Clearly there is no question or doubt about the names of the vowels A, E, I, O, U. They are simply long A, long E, etc. (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū). Nor is there any uncertainty with respect to the six mutes B, C, D, G, P, T. Their names are bē, cē, dē, gē, pē, tē (each with a long E). Or about H, K, and Q: they are hā, kā, kū—each, again, with a long vowel sound."

Lithuanian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *beź, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰe (instrumental particle) + *-ǵʰs (out). Cognate with Proto-Slavic *bez(ъ) (without); see there for more cognates.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

be (with genitive)

  1. (shows absence of something) without
  2. besides; but, except

Antonyms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) “be”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 84

Malagasy edit

Adjective edit

be

  1. big; great
    Antonym: kely
  2. many; numerous

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

be

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of bê̄.

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old English bēon.

Verb edit

be

  1. Alternative form of been

Etymology 2 edit

From Old English bēo.

Noun edit

be

  1. Alternative form of bee

Etymology 3 edit

From Old English bēo, bēom, first-person singular of bēon, from Proto-Germanic *biumi, first-person singular of *beuną.

Verb edit

be

  1. first-person singular present indicative of been
Usage notes edit
  • Less common than am.

Etymology 4 edit

From Old English bēo, singular subjunctive of bēon.

Verb edit

be

  1. singular present subjunctive of been
Descendants edit
  • English: be
  • Scots: be

Etymology 5 edit

From Old English bēo, 2nd-person singular imperative of bēon, from Proto-Germanic *beu, 2nd-person singular imperative of *beuną.

Verb edit

be

  1. singular imperative of been
Descendants edit
  • English: be
  • Scots: be

Etymology 6 edit

Old English bēoþ (with the replaced with an -n levelled in from the past and subjunctive, then lost), present plural of bēon (to be), from Proto-Germanic *biunþi, third-person present plural of *beuną (to be, become).

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

be

  1. plural present of been
Usage notes edit

The usual plural form of been is aren in the North, been in the Midlands, and beth in the South; sind also existed, especially early on, but was not the predominant form in any area.

Descendants edit
  • English: be (obsolete or dialectal as the plural)
  • Scots: be

Mòcheno edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German wec, from Old High German weg, from Proto-West Germanic *weg, from Proto-Germanic *wegaz (way, path). Cognate with German Weg, English way.

Noun edit

be m

  1. path, way

Derived terms edit

References edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse biðja.

Verb edit

be (imperative be, present tense ber, passive bes, simple past ba or bad, past participle bedt, present participle beende)

  1. to pray
  2. to ask something of someone

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

References edit

  • “be” in The Bokmål Dictionary.
  • be” in The Ordnett Dictionary

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse biðja. Akin to English bid.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

be (present tense ber, past tense bad, supine bede or bedd or bedt, past participle beden or bedd, present participle bedande, imperative be)

  1. to pray
  2. to ask something of someone

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

References edit

  • “be” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • be” in The Ordnett Dictionary

Occitan edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Noun edit

be f (plural bes)

  1. bee (the letter b)

Old English edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *bi.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

be

  1. about (concerning)
  2. by, in various senses:
    1. near or next to
    2. not later than
    3. based on, according to
  3. for, in the account of
    • late 10th century, Ælfric, "Passion of St.Alban, Martyr"
      Eall swa þa unriht-wisan deman þe heora domas awendað, æfre be þam sceattum na be soðfæstnysse and habbað æfre to cepe heora soðfæstnysse, and swa hi sylfe syllað wið sceattum...
      So likewise those unrighteous judges who pervert their judgments, always for gain, and not for justice, and always offer their justice for sale, and thus sell themselves for the sake of money,...

See also edit

Old Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (2nd sg. pres. subj.): ba

Verb edit

be

  1. second-person singular present subjunctive of is
  2. first/second-person singular future of is

Phalura edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit वयम् (vayam, we).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

be (personal, Perso-Arabic spelling بےۡ)

  1. we (1pl nom)

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985) “be”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From the phonetic pronunciation of the letter B/b.

Noun edit

be n (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.

Etymology 2 edit

Onomatopoeic.

Adjective edit

be (comparative bardziej be, superlative najbardziej be, indeclinable, derived adverb be)

  1. (childish) icky, yucky
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:zły

Adverb edit

be (comparative bardziej be, superlative najbardziej be)

  1. (childish) icky, yucky

Interjection edit

be

  1. (colloquial) used with children to tell them not to touch something, bad! no touchy!
  2. (onomatopoeia) used to imitate the sound of a sheep or ram, baa
    Synonym: me
Derived terms edit
adjective
interjection
nouns
verbs

Further reading edit

  • be in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • be in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Onomatopoeic.

Interjection edit

be

  1. baa (sound made by sheep or goats)

Savi edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit वयम् (vayam).

Pronoun edit

be

  1. we; first-person plural personal pronoun

References edit

  • Nina Knobloch (2020) A grammar sketch of Sauji: An Indo-Aryan language of Afghanistan[3], Stockholm University

Scots edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English been, from Old English bēon. The various forms have different further etymologies:

Cognates include English be.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

be

  1. to be
Conjugation edit

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

be

  1. Alternative form of by

References edit

  1. ^ be, v..” in the Dictionary of the Scots Language, Edinburgh: Scottish Language Dictionaries.
  2. ^ by, prep., adv., conj..” in the Dictionary of the Scots Language, Edinburgh: Scottish Language Dictionaries.

Serili edit

Noun edit

be

  1. water

References edit

  • Roger Blench, The Enggano (in notes)
  • ABVD (as 'bɛ)
  • ASJP (as bE, representing bɛ)

Slovene edit

Etymology edit

Probably from the German name of the letter B (pronounced [beː]).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

bẹ̑ m inan

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.

Inflection edit

 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., soft o-stem
nom. sing.
gen. sing. bêja
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
bêja bêji
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
bêja bêjev bêjev
dative
(dajȃlnik)
bêju bêjema bêjem
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
bêja bêje
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
bêju bêjih bêjih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
bêjem bêjema bêji

Synonyms edit

Sotho edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-bɪ́ɪ̀.

Adjective edit

be

  1. bad

Spanish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

be f (plural bes)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.
    Synonyms: be larga, be alta, be grande, be de burro
    Coordinate terms: uve, ve corta, ve baja, ve chica, ve de vaca
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Echoic.

Noun edit

be m (plural bes)

  1. baa (bleating of a sheep)

Further reading edit

Sumerian edit

Romanization edit

be

  1. Romanization of 𒁁 (be)

Swedish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From older bedja, from Old Swedish biþia, from Old Norse biðja, from Proto-Germanic *bidjaną, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰedʰ-. Cognate with Danish bede, Icelandic biðja, English bid, Dutch bidden, German bitten.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

be (present ber, preterite bad, supine bett, imperative be)

  1. to ask for, request someone else to do something
    Han bad om ett glas vattenHe asked for a glass of water
    Jag vill be om en tjänstI want to ask you a favor
    Han bad honom lämna rummetHe asked him to leave the room
  2. to pray
    De satt i kyrkan och badThey sat in church, praying
  3. to beg, to plead with someone for help or for a favor
    Hjälp mig! Jag ber dig!Help me! I beg of you!

Conjugation edit

Synonyms edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

References edit

Tagalog edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Spanish be, the Spanish name of the letter B/b. Ultimately from Latin . Doublet of bi.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜒ) (historical)

  1. the name of the Latin-script letter B/b, in the Abecedario
    Synonyms: (in the Filipino alphabet) bi, (in the Abakada alphabet) ba

Further reading edit

  • be”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Tarao edit

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

be

  1. bean, beans

References edit

  • Chungkham Yashwanta Singh (2002) Tarao Grammar (in Tarao)

Turkish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B/b.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

be

  1. Letter of the Arabic alphabet: ب

Etymology 3 edit

From Ottoman Turkish به (be).

Interjection edit

be

  1. (very informal) hey there, hey! you! (implying disapproval of the addressee’s actions)
  2. strengthening of the preceding sentence
    Bu yük çok ağır be!My, this load is very heavy

References edit

Tzotzil edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (Zinacantán) IPA(key): /ɓɛ/

Noun edit

be

  1. road, path, way

References edit

Vietnamese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun edit

be

  1. wine flask
    Rượu ngon chẳng quản be sành.
    Good wine does not mind a terracotta flask.

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from French beige.

Adjective edit

be

  1. beige
    chiếc áo mưa màu be — a beige raincoat

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Verb edit

be

  1. To build a mud embankment with one's hands.
  2. To prop up the lip of a sack while topping off the sack, to ensure a more generous quantity.
    lấy tay be miệng đấu khi đong đỗ — to surround the top of a measure with one's hands while measuring beans
    Đong bình thường, không được be đâu đấy. — Measure it out normally; don't prop up the lip of the sack.

Etymology 4 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Verb edit

be

  1. To hug a boundary or riverbank.
    Thuyền be theo bờ sông.
    The boat hugged the riverbank.

Etymology 5 edit

Onomatopoeic

Interjection edit

be (𠻻, 𠾦)

  1. (onomatopoeia) bleat; baa
Related terms edit

References edit

"be" in Hồ Ngọc Đức, Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project (details)

West Makian edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

be

  1. water

References edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[5], Pacific linguistics

Yola edit

Etymology 1 edit

Verb edit

be

  1. Alternative form of ba (to be)
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 53:
      Leth it be.
      Let it be.
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 2, page 84:
      Well, gosp, c'hull be zeid; mot thee fartoo, an fade;
      Well, gossip, it shall be told; you ask what ails me, and for what;
    • 1867, “VERSES IN ANSWER TO THE WEDDEEN O BALLYMORE”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 3, page 100:
      At ye mye ne'er be wooveless ta vill a lear jock an cooan.
      That you may never be unprovided to fill an empty jack and can.
    • 1867, “ABOUT AN OLD SOW GOING TO BE KILLED”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 2, page 106:
      Na speen to be multh, nar flaase to be shaure.
      no teat to be milked, nor fleece to be shorn.
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 116, lines 14-15:
      till ee zin o'oure daies be var aye be ee-go t'glade.
      until the sun of our lives be gone down the dark valley (of death).
  2. Alternative form of ba (is)
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 114, lines 23-24:
      proo'th, y'at wee alane needeth ye giftes o'generale rights, az be displayte bie ee factes o'thie goveremente.
      proves that we alone stood in need of the enjoyment of common privileges, as is demonstrated by the results of your government.
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 116, lines 1-2:
      Ye state na dicke daie o'ye londe, na whilke be nar fash nar moile, albiet 'constitutional agitation,'
      The condition, this day, of the country, in which is neither tumult nor disorder, but that constitutional agitation,
  3. Alternative form of ba (are)
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 14, page 90:
      Shoo ya aam zim to doone, as w' be doone nowe;
      She gave them some to do, as we are doing now;
    • 1867, “THE WEDDEEN O BALLYMORE”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 1, page 94:
      Ye be welcome, hearthilee welcome, mee joees,
      You are welcome, heartily welcome, my joys,
    • 1867, “THE WEDDEEN O BALLYMORE”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 1, page 94:
      Ye be welcome, hearthillee, ivery oan.
      You are heartily welcome, every one.
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 114, lines 11-12:
      unnere fose fatherlie zwae oure daiez be ee-spant,
      under whose paternal rule our days are spent;
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 116, lines 9-10:
      Wi Irishmen owre generale hopes be ee-bond——
      With Irishmen our common hopes are inseparably bound up——
  4. Alternative form of ba (been)
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 3, page 84:
      Yith Muzleare had ba hole, t'was mee Tommeen,
      If Good-for-little had been buried, it had been my Tommy,

Etymology 2 edit

Preposition edit

be

  1. Alternative form of bee (by)
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 13, page 90:
      Ha-ho! be mee coshes, th'ast ee-pait it, co Joane;
      Hey-ho! by my conscience, you have paid it, quoth John;
    • 1867, “CASTEALE CUDDE'S LAMENTATION”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 102:
      FOR LOSS O' HIS CUCK AT WAS EE-TOOK BE A VOX.
      FOR LOSS OF HIS COCK THAT WAS TAKEN BY A FOX.

References edit

  • Jacob Poole (d. 1827) (before 1828) William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, published 1867

Zia edit

Noun edit

be

  1. mouth

Zou edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

  1. bean

References edit

  • Lukram Himmat Singh (2013) A Descriptive Grammar of Zou, Canchipur: Manipur University, page 40

Zulu edit

Etymology edit

From -ba (to be).

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /ɓe/

Verb edit

-be

  1. (auxiliary) forms continuous tenses [+participial]
    Ngesonto elilandelayo ngizobe ngisebenza kakhulu.
    Next week I will be working a lot.

Usage notes edit

In past tenses, this auxiliary is usually contracted.

Ngibe ngihambaBengihamba "I was walking." (recent past)

Ngabe ngihambaNgangihamba "I was walking." (remote past)

Inflection edit

This entry needs an inflection-table template.

References edit

C. M. Doke, B. W. Vilakazi (1972) “-ɓe”, in Zulu-English Dictionary, →ISBN:-ɓe