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LatvianEdit

 ciems on Latvian Wikipedia
 
Ciems (Dzelzāmurs, Latvijā)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *ḱeym-(village, home) (whence also saime(family, household), q.v.), from *ḱey-, *ḱoy-(to be located; camp; abode); the original meaning of ciems was thus “camp, encampment.” A parallel form *kaims (> kaimiņš(neighbor), q.v.) also existed. Since Proto-Indo-European *ḱ should yield Latvian > s, not c, it has been suggested that ciems and all its Baltic cognates descend from Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyə-(piece, quiet), or result from a borrowing, from Proto-Germanic *haimaz(village); but there are rather many Baltic and Slavic words with irregular reflexes of *ḱ, which suggest dialectal differences or parallel forms (*ḱey-/*key-) already in Proto-Indo-European. Cognates include Lithuanian kiẽmas(yard, rural house, village), kaímas(village), Old Prussian caymis(village), Sudovian aucima(village), Proto-Germanic *haimaz(house, village) (Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐌹𐌼𐍃(haims, village), Old High German heim(dwelling, house), German Heim, English home), Ancient Greek κώμη(kṓmē, village) (compare κεῖμαι(keîmai, to lie down))[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

ciems m (1st declension)

  1. village, settlement (small group of houses that forms a territorial unit)
    liels, mazs ciems‎ ― big, small village
    ciems jūras krastā‎ ― a village on the seashore
  2. the inhabitants of a village
    viss ciems saskrēja skatīties‎ ― the whole vilage came running to watch
  3. the area surrounding a village, organized as an administrative unit
    ciema padome‎ ― village council
    ciema teritorija‎ ― village territory
    rajona pilsētas un ciemi‎ ― the towns/cities and villages of the district

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ciems”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7