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LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Italic *fermos, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰer-mo-s (holding), from the root *dʰer- (to hold) (whence also ferē and fermē). Cognates include Sanskrit धरति (dharati), Old Persian 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎠𐎷𐎹 (dārayāmiy), Persian دار (dār, have, hold) Lithuanian derė́ti and Russian держать (deržát’).[1]

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

firmus (feminine firma, neuter firmum, comparative firmior, superlative firmissimus); first/second declension

  1. stable, strong, firm
  2. faithful, steadfast, true

InflectionEdit

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative firmus firma firmum firmī firmae firma
genitive firmī firmae firmī firmōrum firmārum firmōrum
dative firmō firmō firmīs
accusative firmum firmam firmum firmōs firmās firma
ablative firmō firmā firmō firmīs
vocative firme firma firmum firmī firmae firma

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “firmus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 223

Further readingEdit

  • firmus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • firmus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • firmus” in Félix Gaffiot’s Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934)
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a strong, striking proof: argumentum firmum, magnum
  • firmus in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • firmus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016