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  1. tomb (including both walled structures and rock tombs) [Pyramid Texts to Greco-Roman Period]
    • 6th Dynasty, Giza, Western Cemetery, Shaft G 2188 Y, Block of sunk relief inscription mentioning the dog Abutiu (35-10-22/Cairo JE 67573), lines 6–9:[1]


      rḏj ḥm.f [s]fṯ ḫwz n[.f] jz jn jzwt nt (j)qdw
      His Majesty gave pine oil and (ordered) that a tomb be built for him by a gang of builders.
    • 12th Dynasty, The coffin of Nakhtankh, London, British Museum, BM EA 35285:
      qrst nfrt m js.f nfr n ẖrt-nṯr
      […] a good burial in his wonderful tomb of the necropolis […]
    • c. 1860–1840 BCE, The Loyalist Teaching, Stele of Sehetepibre, CG 20538 verso, line 19:
      nn jz n sbj
      There is no tomb for a rebel.
  2. (often dual during the Old Kingdom) administrative chamber, bureau
    • c. 1200–1189 BCE, Satirical Letter of Hori (pAnastasi I/pBM EA 10247), lines 1.1–1.2:[2]
      zẖꜣw stpw ḥꜣtj wꜣḥ nḏnḏ r […] ḥm n(j) nb ḫmnw m jsj n(j) zẖꜣw
      The scribe, choicest of mind and enduring of advice, [is …] a servant of the lord of Hermopolis in the bureau of writings, […]
  3. workshop, especially for the preparation of ointments [since the Old Kingdom; chiefly Greco-Roman Period]
    • 5th Dynasty, late 25th Century BCE, Saqqara, mortuary complex of Unas, mastaba of Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum, east wall of the rock chamber, south section, top right, scene 30.B, caption in front of Niankhkhnum:[3]

      mꜣꜣ kꜣt m jz n(j) ḥmwt nb(t) jn sḥḏ jr(w)-ꜥnt pr-ꜥꜣ n(j)-ꜥnḫ-ẖnm(w)
      Viewing of the work in the workshop of all craftsmen by the inspector of manicurists of the palace, Niankhkhnum.


Alternative formsEdit

In the sense of ‘tomb’:

In the sense of ‘administrative chamber’:

In the sense of ‘workshop’:

Derived termsEdit


  1. old, used, from bygone times [since the Middle Kingdom]
  2. in decline, deteriorating, decaying


Alternative formsEdit


Derived termsEdit


  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 117, 218
  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1926) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, volume 1, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, page 126.18–126.24, 127.2–127.5, 128.6–128.9
  1. ^ Reisner, George A. (1936) “The Dog which was Honored by the King of Upper and Lower Egypt” in Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, volume XXXIV, number 206, pages 96–99
  2. ^ Gardiner, Alan (1911) Egyptian Hieratic Texts: Series I: Literary Texts of the New Kingdom: Part I: The Papyrus Anastasi I and the Papyrus Koller, together with the Parallel Texts, page 2
  3. ^ Moussa, Ahmed M. and Altenmüller, Hartwig (1977) Das Grab des Nianchchnum und Chnumhotep (Archäologische Veröffentlichungen 21), Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abt. Kairo, Mainz, page 134 and plate 65