decline

See also: decliné, décline, and décliné

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English declinen, from Old French decliner, from Latin declinare (to bend, turn aside, deflect, inflect, decline), from de (down) + clīnō (I bend, I incline), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱley- (English lean).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /dɪˈklaɪn/
  • Hyphenation: de‧cline
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -aɪn

NounEdit

decline (countable and uncountable, plural declines)

  1. Downward movement, fall.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  2. A sloping downward, e.g. of a hill or road.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  3. A weakening.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
    • 2012 January 1, Philip E. Mirowski, “Harms to Health from the Pursuit of Profits”, in American Scientist[1], volume 100, number 1, page 87:
      In an era when political leaders promise deliverance from decline through America’s purported preeminence in scientific research, the news that science is in deep trouble in the United States has been as unwelcome as a diagnosis of leukemia following the loss of health insurance.
  4. A reduction or diminution of activity.
    • 1992, Rudolf M[athias] Schuster, The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America: East of the Hundredth Meridian, volume V, New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page ix:
      It is also pertinent to note that the current obvious decline in work on holarctic hepatics most surely reflects a current obsession with cataloging and with nomenclature of the organisms—as divorced from their study as living entities.
  5. The act of declining or refusing something.
    • 2004, David A. Montague, Fraud Prevention Techniques for Credit Card Fraud:
      The issuing bank only checks the consumer's credit card number for authorization. [] Soft declines are those declines in which the bank requires further verification.

AntonymsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

VerbEdit

decline (third-person singular simple present declines, present participle declining, simple past and past participle declined)

  1. (intransitive) To move downwards, to fall, to drop.
    The dollar has declined rapidly since 2001.
  2. (intransitive) To become weaker or worse.
    My health declined in winter.
  3. (transitive) To bend downward; to bring down; to depress; to cause to bend, or fall.
  4. (transitive) To cause to decrease or diminish.
  5. To turn or bend aside; to deviate; to stray; to withdraw.
    a line that declines from straightness
    conduct that declines from sound morals
  6. (transitive) To choose not to do something; refuse, forbear, refrain.
    • 1626, Philip Massinger, The Roman Actor
      Could I decline this dreadful hour?
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 7, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      “[…] This is Mr. Churchill, who, as you are aware, is good enough to come to us for his diaconate, and, as we hope, for much longer; and being a gentleman of independent means, he declines to take any payment.” Saying this Walden rubbed his hands together and smiled contentedly.
    On reflection I think I will decline your generous offer.
  7. (transitive, grammar, usually of substantives, adjectives and pronouns) To inflect for case, number and sometimes gender; more specifically, to recite all the different declined forms of a noun.
    • 1570, Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster (first edition)
      after the first declining of a noun and a verb
  8. (by extension) To run through from first to last; to recite in order as though declining a noun.
  9. (American football, Canadian football) To reject a penalty against the opposing team, usually because the result of accepting it would benefit the non-penalized team less than the preceding play.
    The team chose to decline the fifteen-yard penalty because their receiver had caught the ball for a thirty-yard gain.

Usage notesEdit

  • Decline, refuse, forbear, refrain: Decline is gentler than refuse and carries a connotation that the non-acceptance is an acceptable or anticipated option (decline an invitation) or the result of a considered decision (the judge declined to grant the motion). Refuse has a stronger connotation of rejection, firmness, resistance, or non-compliance. For example, if someone declines to give their name, that suggests they were given a choice and elected not to give their name. If someone refuses to give their name, the connotation is more toward a suggestion that they normally should have given their name and are being intransigent. Forbear or refrain, conversely, suggest choosing not to do something that one might indulge in or be tempted to do (refrain from smoking), with forbear having an added connotation of showing some fortitude in withstanding the temptation (forbear to show anger). Refrain can also be used to refer to a general policy or preference rather than a choice on a single occasion.


Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Further readingEdit

AnagramsEdit


PortugueseEdit

VerbEdit

decline

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of declinar
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of declinar
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of declinar
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of declinar

RomanianEdit

VerbEdit

decline

  1. third-person singular present subjunctive of declina
  2. third-person plural present subjunctive of declina

SpanishEdit

VerbEdit

decline

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of declinar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of declinar.