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See also: thánda

Contents

XhosaEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Nguni [Term?].

VerbEdit

-thânda

  1. (transitive) to love, to like

InflectionEdit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


ZuluEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Nguni [Term?].

VerbEdit

-thânda

  1. (transitive) to love, to like
InflectionEdit
Tone HH
Infinitive ukuthanda
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuthanda ukungathandi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular thanda thande
Plural thandani thandeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyathanda, ngithanda engiyathanda, engithanda ngithanda angithandi engingathandi ngingathandi
2nd singular uyathanda, uthanda oyathanda, othanda uthanda awuthandi ongathandi ungathandi
1st plural siyathanda, sithanda esiyathanda, esithanda sithanda asithandi esingathandi singathandi
2nd plural niyathanda, nithanda eniyathanda, enithanda nithanda anithandi eningathandi ningathandi
Class 1 uyathanda, uthanda oyathanda, othanda ethanda akathandi ongathandi engathandi
Class 2 bayathanda, bathanda abayathanda, abathanda bethanda abathandi abangathandi bengathandi
Class 3 uyathanda, uthanda oyathanda, othanda uthanda awuthandi ongathandi ungathandi
Class 4 iyathanda, ithanda eyathanda, ethanda ithanda ayithandi engathandi ingathandi
Class 5 liyathanda, lithanda eliyathanda, elithanda lithanda alithandi elingathandi lingathandi
Class 6 ayathanda, athanda ayathanda, athanda ethanda awathandi angathandi engathandi
Class 7 siyathanda, sithanda esiyathanda, esithanda sithanda asithandi esingathandi singathandi
Class 8 ziyathanda, zithanda eziyathanda, ezithanda zithanda azithandi ezingathandi zingathandi
Class 9 iyathanda, ithanda eyathanda, ethanda ithanda ayithandi engathandi ingathandi
Class 10 ziyathanda, zithanda eziyathanda, ezithanda zithanda azithandi ezingathandi zingathandi
Class 11 luyathanda, luthanda oluyathanda, oluthanda luthanda aluthandi olungathandi lungathandi
Class 14 buyathanda, buthanda obuyathanda, obuthanda buthanda abuthandi obungathandi bungathandi
Class 15 kuyathanda, kuthanda okuyathanda, okuthanda kuthanda akuthandi okungathandi kungathandi
Class 17 kuyathanda, kuthanda okuyathanda, okuthanda kuthanda akuthandi okungathandi kungathandi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngithandile, ngithandē engithandile, engithandē ngithandile, ngithandē angithandanga engingathandanga ngingathandanga
2nd singular uthandile, uthandē othandile, othandē uthandile, uthandē awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
1st plural sithandile, sithandē esithandile, esithandē sithandile, sithandē asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
2nd plural nithandile, nithandē enithandile, enithandē nithandile, nithandē anithandanga eningathandanga ningathandanga
Class 1 uthandile, uthandē othandile, othandē ethandile, ethandē akathandanga ongathandanga engathandanga
Class 2 bathandile, bathandē abathandile, abathandē bethandile, bethandē abathandanga abangathandanga bengathandanga
Class 3 uthandile, uthandē othandile, othandē uthandile, uthandē awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
Class 4 ithandile, ithandē ethandile, ethandē ithandile, ithandē ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 5 lithandile, lithandē elithandile, elithandē lithandile, lithandē alithandanga elingathandanga lingathandanga
Class 6 athandile, athandē athandile, athandē ethandile, ethandē awathandanga angathandanga engathandanga
Class 7 sithandile, sithandē esithandile, esithandē sithandile, sithandē asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
Class 8 zithandile, zithandē ezithandile, ezithandē zithandile, zithandē azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 9 ithandile, ithandē ethandile, ethandē ithandile, ithandē ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 10 zithandile, zithandē ezithandile, ezithandē zithandile, zithandē azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 11 luthandile, luthandē oluthandile, oluthandē luthandile, luthandē aluthandanga olungathandanga lungathandanga
Class 14 buthandile, buthandē obuthandile, obuthandē buthandile, buthandē abuthandanga obungathandanga bungathandanga
Class 15 kuthandile, kuthandē okuthandile, okuthandē kuthandile, kuthandē akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Class 17 kuthandile, kuthandē okuthandile, okuthandē kuthandile, kuthandē akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāthanda engāthanda ngāthanda angithandanga engingathandanga ngingathandanga
2nd singular wāthanda owāthanda wāthanda awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
1st plural sāthanda esāthanda sāthanda asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
2nd plural nāthanda enāthanda nāthanda anithandanga eningathandanga ningathandanga
Class 1 wāthanda owāthanda āthanda akathandanga ongathandanga engathandanga
Class 2 bāthanda abāthanda bāthanda abathandanga abangathandanga bengathandanga
Class 3 wāthanda owāthanda wāthanda awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
Class 4 yāthanda eyāthanda yāthanda ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 5 lāthanda elāthanda lāthanda alithandanga elingathandanga lingathandanga
Class 6 āthanda āthanda āthanda awathandanga angathandanga engathandanga
Class 7 sāthanda esāthanda sāthanda asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
Class 8 zāthanda ezāthanda zāthanda azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 9 yāthanda eyāthanda yāthanda ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 10 zāthanda ezāthanda zāthanda azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 11 lwāthanda olwāthanda lwāthanda aluthandanga olungathandanga lungathandanga
Class 14 bāthanda obāthanda bāthanda abuthandanga obungathandanga bungathandanga
Class 15 kwāthanda okwāthanda kwāthanda akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Class 17 kwāthanda okwāthanda kwāthanda akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingathanda ngingathanda ngingethande ngingethande
2nd singular ungathanda ungathanda ungethande ungethande
1st plural singathanda singathanda singethande singethande
2nd plural ningathanda ningathanda ningethande ningethande
Class 1 angathanda engathanda angethande engethande
Class 2 bangathanda bengathanda bangethande bengethande
Class 3 ungathanda ungathanda ungethande ungethande
Class 4 ingathanda ingathanda ingethande ingethande
Class 5 lingathanda lingathanda lingethande lingethande
Class 6 angathanda engathanda angethande engethande
Class 7 singathanda singathanda singethande singethande
Class 8 zingathanda zingathanda zingethande zingethande
Class 9 ingathanda ingathanda ingethande ingethande
Class 10 zingathanda zingathanda zingethande zingethande
Class 11 lungathanda lungathanda lungethande lungethande
Class 14 bungathanda bungathanda bungethande bungethande
Class 15 kungathanda kungathanda kungethande kungethande
Class 17 kungathanda kungathanda kungethande kungethande
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizothanda engizothanda ngizothanda angizuthanda ngingezuthanda
2nd singular uzothanda ozothanda uzothanda awuzuthanda ungezuthanda
1st plural sizothanda esizothanda sizothanda asizuthanda singezuthanda
2nd plural nizothanda enizothanda nizothanda anizuthanda ningezuthanda
Class 1 uzothanda ozothanda ezothanda akazuthanda engezuthanda
Class 2 bazothanda abazothanda bezothanda abazuthanda bengezuthanda
Class 3 uzothanda ozothanda uzothanda awuzuthanda ungezuthanda
Class 4 izothanda ezothanda izothanda ayizuthanda ingezuthanda
Class 5 lizothanda elizothanda lizothanda alizuthanda lingezuthanda
Class 6 azothanda azothanda ezothanda awazuthanda engezuthanda
Class 7 sizothanda esizothanda sizothanda asizuthanda singezuthanda
Class 8 zizothanda ezizothanda zizothanda azizuthanda zingezuthanda
Class 9 izothanda ezothanda izothanda ayizuthanda ingezuthanda
Class 10 zizothanda ezizothanda zizothanda azizuthanda zingezuthanda
Class 11 luzothanda oluzothanda luzothanda aluzuthanda lungezuthanda
Class 14 buzothanda obuzothanda buzothanda abuzuthanda bungezuthanda
Class 15 kuzothanda okuzothanda kuzothanda akuzuthanda kungezuthanda
Class 17 kuzothanda okuzothanda kuzothanda akuzuthanda kungezuthanda
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyothanda engiyothanda ngiyothanda angiyuthanda ngingeyuthanda
2nd singular uyothanda oyothanda uyothanda awuyuthanda ungeyuthanda
1st plural siyothanda esiyothanda siyothanda asiyuthanda singeyuthanda
2nd plural niyothanda eniyothanda niyothanda aniyuthanda ningeyuthanda
Class 1 uyothanda oyothanda eyothanda akayuthanda engeyuthanda
Class 2 bayothanda abayothanda beyothanda abayuthanda bengeyuthanda
Class 3 uyothanda oyothanda uyothanda awuyuthanda ungeyuthanda
Class 4 iyothanda eyothanda iyothanda ayiyuthanda ingeyuthanda
Class 5 liyothanda eliyothanda liyothanda aliyuthanda lingeyuthanda
Class 6 ayothanda ayothanda eyothanda awayuthanda engeyuthanda
Class 7 siyothanda esiyothanda siyothanda asiyuthanda singeyuthanda
Class 8 ziyothanda eziyothanda ziyothanda aziyuthanda zingeyuthanda
Class 9 iyothanda eyothanda iyothanda ayiyuthanda ingeyuthanda
Class 10 ziyothanda eziyothanda ziyothanda aziyuthanda zingeyuthanda
Class 11 luyothanda oluyothanda luyothanda aluyuthanda lungeyuthanda
Class 14 buyothanda obuyothanda buyothanda abuyuthanda bungeyuthanda
Class 15 kuyothanda okuyothanda kuyothanda akuyuthanda kungeyuthanda
Class 17 kuyothanda okuyothanda kuyothanda akuyuthanda kungeyuthanda
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngithande ngingathandi
2nd singular uthande ungathandi
1st plural sithande singathandi
2nd plural nithande ningathandi
Class 1 athande angathandi
Class 2 bathande bangathandi
Class 3 uthande ungathandi
Class 4 ithande ingathandi
Class 5 lithande lingathandi
Class 6 athande angathandi
Class 7 sithande singathandi
Class 8 zithande zingathandi
Class 9 ithande ingathandi
Class 10 zithande zingathandi
Class 11 luthande lungathandi
Class 14 buthande bungathandi
Class 15 kuthande kungathandi
Class 17 kuthande kungathandi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngathanda angithanda
2nd singular wathanda awuthanda
1st plural sathanda asithanda
2nd plural nathanda anithanda
Class 1 wathanda akathanda
Class 2 bathanda abathanda
Class 3 wathanda awuthanda
Class 4 yathanda ayithanda
Class 5 lathanda alithanda
Class 6 athanda awathanda
Class 7 sathanda asithanda
Class 8 zathanda azithanda
Class 9 yathanda ayithanda
Class 10 zathanda azithanda
Class 11 lwathanda aluthanda
Class 14 bathanda abuthanda
Class 15 kwathanda akuthanda
Class 17 kwathanda akuthanda
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

VerbEdit

-thanda

  1. (transitive) to carve, to plait, to wind around
InflectionEdit
Tone L
Infinitive ukuthanda
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuthanda ukungathandi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular thanda thande
Plural thandani thandeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyathanda, ngithanda engiyathanda, engithanda ngithanda angithandi engingathandi ngingathandi
2nd singular uyathanda, uthanda oyathanda, othanda uthanda awuthandi ongathandi ungathandi
1st plural siyathanda, sithanda esiyathanda, esithanda sithanda asithandi esingathandi singathandi
2nd plural niyathanda, nithanda eniyathanda, enithanda nithanda anithandi eningathandi ningathandi
Class 1 uyathanda, uthanda oyathanda, othanda ethanda akathandi ongathandi engathandi
Class 2 bayathanda, bathanda abayathanda, abathanda bethanda abathandi abangathandi bengathandi
Class 3 uyathanda, uthanda oyathanda, othanda uthanda awuthandi ongathandi ungathandi
Class 4 iyathanda, ithanda eyathanda, ethanda ithanda ayithandi engathandi ingathandi
Class 5 liyathanda, lithanda eliyathanda, elithanda lithanda alithandi elingathandi lingathandi
Class 6 ayathanda, athanda ayathanda, athanda ethanda awathandi angathandi engathandi
Class 7 siyathanda, sithanda esiyathanda, esithanda sithanda asithandi esingathandi singathandi
Class 8 ziyathanda, zithanda eziyathanda, ezithanda zithanda azithandi ezingathandi zingathandi
Class 9 iyathanda, ithanda eyathanda, ethanda ithanda ayithandi engathandi ingathandi
Class 10 ziyathanda, zithanda eziyathanda, ezithanda zithanda azithandi ezingathandi zingathandi
Class 11 luyathanda, luthanda oluyathanda, oluthanda luthanda aluthandi olungathandi lungathandi
Class 14 buyathanda, buthanda obuyathanda, obuthanda buthanda abuthandi obungathandi bungathandi
Class 15 kuyathanda, kuthanda okuyathanda, okuthanda kuthanda akuthandi okungathandi kungathandi
Class 17 kuyathanda, kuthanda okuyathanda, okuthanda kuthanda akuthandi okungathandi kungathandi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngithandile, ngithandē engithandile, engithandē ngithandile, ngithandē angithandanga engingathandanga ngingathandanga
2nd singular uthandile, uthandē othandile, othandē uthandile, uthandē awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
1st plural sithandile, sithandē esithandile, esithandē sithandile, sithandē asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
2nd plural nithandile, nithandē enithandile, enithandē nithandile, nithandē anithandanga eningathandanga ningathandanga
Class 1 uthandile, uthandē othandile, othandē ethandile, ethandē akathandanga ongathandanga engathandanga
Class 2 bathandile, bathandē abathandile, abathandē bethandile, bethandē abathandanga abangathandanga bengathandanga
Class 3 uthandile, uthandē othandile, othandē uthandile, uthandē awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
Class 4 ithandile, ithandē ethandile, ethandē ithandile, ithandē ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 5 lithandile, lithandē elithandile, elithandē lithandile, lithandē alithandanga elingathandanga lingathandanga
Class 6 athandile, athandē athandile, athandē ethandile, ethandē awathandanga angathandanga engathandanga
Class 7 sithandile, sithandē esithandile, esithandē sithandile, sithandē asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
Class 8 zithandile, zithandē ezithandile, ezithandē zithandile, zithandē azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 9 ithandile, ithandē ethandile, ethandē ithandile, ithandē ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 10 zithandile, zithandē ezithandile, ezithandē zithandile, zithandē azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 11 luthandile, luthandē oluthandile, oluthandē luthandile, luthandē aluthandanga olungathandanga lungathandanga
Class 14 buthandile, buthandē obuthandile, obuthandē buthandile, buthandē abuthandanga obungathandanga bungathandanga
Class 15 kuthandile, kuthandē okuthandile, okuthandē kuthandile, kuthandē akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Class 17 kuthandile, kuthandē okuthandile, okuthandē kuthandile, kuthandē akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāthanda engāthanda ngāthanda angithandanga engingathandanga ngingathandanga
2nd singular wāthanda owāthanda wāthanda awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
1st plural sāthanda esāthanda sāthanda asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
2nd plural nāthanda enāthanda nāthanda anithandanga eningathandanga ningathandanga
Class 1 wāthanda owāthanda āthanda akathandanga ongathandanga engathandanga
Class 2 bāthanda abāthanda bāthanda abathandanga abangathandanga bengathandanga
Class 3 wāthanda owāthanda wāthanda awuthandanga ongathandanga ungathandanga
Class 4 yāthanda eyāthanda yāthanda ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 5 lāthanda elāthanda lāthanda alithandanga elingathandanga lingathandanga
Class 6 āthanda āthanda āthanda awathandanga angathandanga engathandanga
Class 7 sāthanda esāthanda sāthanda asithandanga esingathandanga singathandanga
Class 8 zāthanda ezāthanda zāthanda azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 9 yāthanda eyāthanda yāthanda ayithandanga engathandanga ingathandanga
Class 10 zāthanda ezāthanda zāthanda azithandanga ezingathandanga zingathandanga
Class 11 lwāthanda olwāthanda lwāthanda aluthandanga olungathandanga lungathandanga
Class 14 bāthanda obāthanda bāthanda abuthandanga obungathandanga bungathandanga
Class 15 kwāthanda okwāthanda kwāthanda akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Class 17 kwāthanda okwāthanda kwāthanda akuthandanga okungathandanga kungathandanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingathanda ngingathanda ngingethande ngingethande
2nd singular ungathanda ungathanda ungethande ungethande
1st plural singathanda singathanda singethande singethande
2nd plural ningathanda ningathanda ningethande ningethande
Class 1 angathanda engathanda angethande engethande
Class 2 bangathanda bengathanda bangethande bengethande
Class 3 ungathanda ungathanda ungethande ungethande
Class 4 ingathanda ingathanda ingethande ingethande
Class 5 lingathanda lingathanda lingethande lingethande
Class 6 angathanda engathanda angethande engethande
Class 7 singathanda singathanda singethande singethande
Class 8 zingathanda zingathanda zingethande zingethande
Class 9 ingathanda ingathanda ingethande ingethande
Class 10 zingathanda zingathanda zingethande zingethande
Class 11 lungathanda lungathanda lungethande lungethande
Class 14 bungathanda bungathanda bungethande bungethande
Class 15 kungathanda kungathanda kungethande kungethande
Class 17 kungathanda kungathanda kungethande kungethande
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizothanda engizothanda ngizothanda angizuthanda ngingezuthanda
2nd singular uzothanda ozothanda uzothanda awuzuthanda ungezuthanda
1st plural sizothanda esizothanda sizothanda asizuthanda singezuthanda
2nd plural nizothanda enizothanda nizothanda anizuthanda ningezuthanda
Class 1 uzothanda ozothanda ezothanda akazuthanda engezuthanda
Class 2 bazothanda abazothanda bezothanda abazuthanda bengezuthanda
Class 3 uzothanda ozothanda uzothanda awuzuthanda ungezuthanda
Class 4 izothanda ezothanda izothanda ayizuthanda ingezuthanda
Class 5 lizothanda elizothanda lizothanda alizuthanda lingezuthanda
Class 6 azothanda azothanda ezothanda awazuthanda engezuthanda
Class 7 sizothanda esizothanda sizothanda asizuthanda singezuthanda
Class 8 zizothanda ezizothanda zizothanda azizuthanda zingezuthanda
Class 9 izothanda ezothanda izothanda ayizuthanda ingezuthanda
Class 10 zizothanda ezizothanda zizothanda azizuthanda zingezuthanda
Class 11 luzothanda oluzothanda luzothanda aluzuthanda lungezuthanda
Class 14 buzothanda obuzothanda buzothanda abuzuthanda bungezuthanda
Class 15 kuzothanda okuzothanda kuzothanda akuzuthanda kungezuthanda
Class 17 kuzothanda okuzothanda kuzothanda akuzuthanda kungezuthanda
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyothanda engiyothanda ngiyothanda angiyuthanda ngingeyuthanda
2nd singular uyothanda oyothanda uyothanda awuyuthanda ungeyuthanda
1st plural siyothanda esiyothanda siyothanda asiyuthanda singeyuthanda
2nd plural niyothanda eniyothanda niyothanda aniyuthanda ningeyuthanda
Class 1 uyothanda oyothanda eyothanda akayuthanda engeyuthanda
Class 2 bayothanda abayothanda beyothanda abayuthanda bengeyuthanda
Class 3 uyothanda oyothanda uyothanda awuyuthanda ungeyuthanda
Class 4 iyothanda eyothanda iyothanda ayiyuthanda ingeyuthanda
Class 5 liyothanda eliyothanda liyothanda aliyuthanda lingeyuthanda
Class 6 ayothanda ayothanda eyothanda awayuthanda engeyuthanda
Class 7 siyothanda esiyothanda siyothanda asiyuthanda singeyuthanda
Class 8 ziyothanda eziyothanda ziyothanda aziyuthanda zingeyuthanda
Class 9 iyothanda eyothanda iyothanda ayiyuthanda ingeyuthanda
Class 10 ziyothanda eziyothanda ziyothanda aziyuthanda zingeyuthanda
Class 11 luyothanda oluyothanda luyothanda aluyuthanda lungeyuthanda
Class 14 buyothanda obuyothanda buyothanda abuyuthanda bungeyuthanda
Class 15 kuyothanda okuyothanda kuyothanda akuyuthanda kungeyuthanda
Class 17 kuyothanda okuyothanda kuyothanda akuyuthanda kungeyuthanda
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngithande ngingathandi
2nd singular uthande ungathandi
1st plural sithande singathandi
2nd plural nithande ningathandi
Class 1 athande angathandi
Class 2 bathande bangathandi
Class 3 uthande ungathandi
Class 4 ithande ingathandi
Class 5 lithande lingathandi
Class 6 athande angathandi
Class 7 sithande singathandi
Class 8 zithande zingathandi
Class 9 ithande ingathandi
Class 10 zithande zingathandi
Class 11 luthande lungathandi
Class 14 buthande bungathandi
Class 15 kuthande kungathandi
Class 17 kuthande kungathandi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngathanda angithanda
2nd singular wathanda awuthanda
1st plural sathanda asithanda
2nd plural nathanda anithanda
Class 1 wathanda akathanda
Class 2 bathanda abathanda
Class 3 wathanda awuthanda
Class 4 yathanda ayithanda
Class 5 lathanda alithanda
Class 6 athanda awathanda
Class 7 sathanda asithanda
Class 8 zathanda azithanda
Class 9 yathanda ayithanda
Class 10 zathanda azithanda
Class 11 lwathanda aluthanda
Class 14 bathanda abuthanda
Class 15 kwathanda akuthanda
Class 17 kwathanda akuthanda
Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit