- This play of vowels is not an original idea of Zamenhof's: -as, -is, -os are found for the three tenses of the infinitive in Faiguet's system of 1765; -a, -i, -o without a consonant are used like Z's -as, -is, -os by Rudelle (1858); Courtonne in 1885 had -am, -im, -om in the same values, and the similarity with Esperanto is here even more perfect than in the other projects, as -um corresponds to Z's -us. —An International Language (1928)
The vowel of -as is likely cognate with the Latin present, as in amat (“s/he loves”), and the corresponding present infinitive amāre, permitting the natural (for an European) -ant ending. i could come from past tense in Latin ami, amisti.
- Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality".
- Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
- Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure.
- Member of the following suffix cluster:
- -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
- -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
Perhaps from the Proto-Germanic accusative plural ending *-anz, with regularly lost -n- before a fricative, or perhaps from the nominative plural *-ōs, a voiceless variety of the regular ending *-ōz. Akin to Old Saxon -os (Low German -s), Dutch -s, Swedish -ar.
- Nominative and accusative case ending, originally of a-stem masculine nouns, later extended to other nouns.
- English: -s.
- -es (after palatal consonants)
- Nominal suffix, used to form abstract ideas or nouns
- Rudolf Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish (Dublin, 1946), §261
- forms the second-person singular present indicative of 1st conjugation verbs
- forms the second-person singular subjunctive present of 2nd and 3rd conjugation verbs
- forms the second-person singular negative imperative of 2nd and 3rd conjugation verbs
- suffix indicating the second-person singular present indicative of -ar.
- suffix indicative the second-person singular present subjunctive of -er verbs and -ir verbs