See also: , , नृ, नै, and

Hindi edit

Etymology edit

  • Borrowed from Haryanvi नै (nai) (or a Rajasthani language), from Sauraseni Apabhramsa कण्णही, from Sanskrit कर्णे (karṇe), locative singular of कर्ण (karṇa, ear). This is the more widely accepted etymology currently, because (1) it is phonologically sound, (2) it accounts for the late occurrence of ने (ne) in Hindi and its lack in Old Hindi, and (3) it follows the pattern of postpositions being derived from the locative forms of terms for body parts, e.g. को (ko, dative postp.) < Sanskrit कक्ष (kakṣa, armpit).[1][2][3]
  • Possibly from Sanskrit -एन (-ena, instrumental case marker). This case suffix serves the same function as Hindi ने (ne) when used with past participles in Sanskrit. However the splitting of a case marker into a postposition does not occur elsewhere in Indo-Aryan and it is phonologically implausible since Sauraseni Prakrit has -𑀏𑀁 (-eṃ).[2]
    Sanskrit: कृष्णे कृतम् ।kṛṣṇena kṛtam .Krishna did it.
    Hindi: कृष्ण ने किया।kṛṣṇa ne kiyā.Krishna did it.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /neː/

Postposition edit

ने (ne) (Urdu spellingنے⁩)

  1. marker of the ergative case with perfective-aspect transitive verbs
    लड़के ने किताब ख़रीदी
    laṛke ne kitāb xarīdī.
    The boy bought a book.
    लड़कों ने किताबें ख़रीदीं
    laṛkõ ne kitābẽ xarīdī̃.
    The boys bought books.

Usage notes edit

Some Eastern Hindi dialects do not mark the ergative case at all.

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Butt, Miriam; Ahmed, Tafseer (2011), “The redevelopment of Indo-Aryan case systems from a lexical semantic perspective”, in Morphology, volume 21, issue 3, pages 545–572
  2. 2.0 2.1 Reinöhl, Uta (2016), “The diverse origins of the Hindi simple postpositions”, in Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan, →ISBN
  3. ^ Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1942) Indo-Aryan and Hindi[1], University of Calcutta, page 118

Newar edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-ni-s ~ s-ni-s.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

ने (ne)

  1. two

Pali edit

Alternative forms edit

Adjective edit

ने

  1. Devanagari script form of ne, which is accusative plural masculine of (na, that)

Pronoun edit

ने

  1. Devanagari script form of ne, which is accusative plural of (na, him, it, that)