- Borrowed from Haryanvi नै (nai) (or a Rajasthani language), from Sauraseni Apabhramsa कण्णही, from Sanskrit कर्णे (karṇe), locative singular of कर्ण (karṇa, “ear”). This is the more widely accepted etymology currently, because (1) it is phonologically sound, (2) it accounts for the late occurrence of ने (ne) in Hindi and its lack in Old Hindi, and (3) it follows the pattern of postpositions being derived from the locative forms of terms for body parts, e.g. को (ko, dative postp.) < Sanskrit कक्ष (kakṣa, “armpit”).
- Possibly from Sanskrit -एन (-ena, instrumental case marker). This case suffix serves the same function as Hindi ने (ne) when used with past participles in Sanskrit. However the splitting of a case marker into a postposition does not occur elsewhere in Indo-Aryan and it is phonologically implausible since Sauraseni Prakrit has -𑀏𑀁 (-eṃ).
- Sanskrit: कृष्णेन कृतम् । ― kṛṣṇena kṛtam . ― Krishna did it.
- Hindi: कृष्ण ने किया। ― kṛṣṇa ne kiyā. ― Krishna did it.
- marker of the ergative case with perfective-aspect transitive verbs
Some Eastern Hindi dialects do not mark the ergative case at all.
- ^ Butt, Miriam; Ahmed, Tafseer (2011), “The redevelopment of Indo-Aryan case systems from a lexical semantic perspective”, in Morphology, volume 21, issue 3, pages 545–572
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Reinöhl, Uta (2016), “The diverse origins of the Hindi simple postpositions”, in Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan, →ISBN
- ^ Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1942) Indo-Aryan and Hindi, University of Calcutta, page 118
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-ni-s ~ s-ni-s.
ने • (ne)
- Devanagari script form of ne, which is accusative plural masculine of न (na, “that”)
- Devanagari script form of ne, which is accusative plural of न (na, “him, it, that”)