See also: α-, ά-, and ἁ-

Ancient Greek edit

Pronunciation edit

 

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Hellenic *ə-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-. The form ἀν- (an-) appears when followed by a laryngeal and a vowel: that is, in an open syllable of the n̥HV- form. Akin to νη- (nē-), νᾱ- (nā-) and νω- (nō-), which are closed-syllable reflexes of the n̥h₁C-, n̥h₂C-, n̥h₃C- forms, respectively.

Cognate with Old English and English un-, Latin in-, Sanskrit अ- (a-), Old Irish in-, an-, Armenian ան- (an-), and Albanian e-.

Alternative forms edit

  • ἀν- (an-)before vowels
  • νη- (nē-), νᾱ- (nā-), νω- (nō-)before a Proto-Indo-European laryngeal and consonant

Prefix edit

ᾰ̓- (a-)

  1. The alpha privativum, used to make words that have a sense opposite to the word (or stem) to which the prefix is attached. It is also known as privative a and alpha privative; a-, ab-, an-, anti-, contra-, de-, dis-, ex-, il-, im-, in-, ob-, ne-, non-, not, un-
Usage notes edit

The alpha is usually short, but long when added to a stem that begins with three short syllables. Thus, words such as ἀ-δάματος (a-dámatos) begin with long alpha in Epic, and frequently also in Lyric, Tragic, or Comic poetry. ἀθάνατος (athánatos) and all its compounds always have long alpha.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • > Greek: α- (a-) (inherited)
  • Norwegian Bokmål: a-
  • Pontic Greek: α- (a-)

Etymology 2 edit

Prefix edit

ᾰ̓- (a-)

  1. Alternative form of ἁ- (ha-)

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix edit

ᾰ̓- (a-)

  1. The alpha intensivum, used to strengthen the force of compounds.

Etymology 4 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix edit

ᾰ̓- (a-)

  1. The alpha euphonicum, used to soften pronunciation before two consonants.

References edit

  • ἀ-”, in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ἀ-”, in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.
    • free idem, page 343.
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1