EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English un-, from Old English un-, from Proto-Germanic *un-, from Proto-West Germanic *un-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-. Cognate with Scots un-, on- (un-), North Frisian ün-, Saterland Frisian uun-, West Frisian ûn-, on-, Dutch on-, Low German un-, on-, German un-, Danish u-, Swedish o-, Norwegian u-, Icelandic ó-. More distant cognate with Latin in-, Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (whence English a-, modern Greek α- (a-)) and Sanskrit अ- (a-).

Doublet of in- and a-.

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. (added to adjectives or past participles) not
    unannounced — “not being announced”
    uneducated — “not educated”
    unattractive — “not attractive”
    unconstitutional — “not constitutional”
  2. (added to nouns) absent; lacking; not; negative
    ungrace (lack of grace, gracelessness)
    unrest (a lack of rest (peace); war)
    unhope (despair)
    unfriend (enemy)
    unrepair
    unluck (misfortune)
    unnova
    uncertainty (lack or absence of certainty)
  3. (added to nouns) contrary to or contrasted against traditional norms; unconventional; alternative
    unconference
    unmethod
Usage notesEdit
  • Some words formed in this way may also have counterparts using in- or non-.
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

NOTE: Words using the prefix un- do not necessarily use the prefixes given here when translated. See individual words for more accurate translations.

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle English on-, from Old English ond-, and- (against, facing, toward; in return, back, without), from Proto-Germanic *anda-, *andi- (against), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (across, forth, forward, ahead), from *h₂ént- (end, limit, forehead). More at and-.

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. (added to verbs and nouns to form verbs) reverse, opposite
    to undress — “to take one's clothes off”
    to unwind — “to reverse a winding”
    to unlock — “to undo the locking of”
    • 1996, Diane Warren (writer), Toni Braxton (singer), “Un-Break My Heart”, Secrets, LaFace
      Un-cry these tears I cried so many nights / Un-break my heart
  2. release, free, remove, extract.
    to uncage — “to release from a cage”
    to untangle — “to remove the tangling of”
Usage notesEdit
  • Only certain words can take un- to form a new word with the opposite meaning. In particular, verbs that describe an irreversible action produce words often considered nonsense, e.g. unkill, unspend, unlose, unring. These words may nevertheless be in occasional use for humorous or other effect.
SynonymsEdit
TranslationsEdit

NOTE: Words using the prefix un- do not necessarily use the prefixes given here when translated. See individual words for more accurate translations.

Etymology 3Edit

From Latin ūnus.

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. Used to form temporary names of elements (such as unbiunium) whose existence has been predicted, and have not yet been given a trivial name.
  2. Used to form large numbers as the first in the sequence.
    undecillion
    unvigintillion
    untrigintillion
SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

AnagramsEdit


GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German un-, from Old High German un-, from Proto-West Germanic *un-, from Proto-Germanic *un-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ʊn/, [ʔʊn]
    • IPA(key): /ʊŋ/ (before /k/, /ɡ/; nonstandard, but common)
    • IPA(key): /ʊm/ (before /p/, /b/; nonstandard, slightly less common; causes merger with um-)
  • In derivatives, the prefix usually carries the stress, though there are exceptions to this.

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. un- (denoting absence, a lack of; violative of; contrary to)
  2. grave; bad; horrifying
    Ding (thing) + ‎un- → ‎Unding (something unacceptable)
    Fall (case, situation) + ‎un- → ‎Unfall (accident)
    Mensch (human being) + ‎un- → ‎Unmensch (brute, barbarian)
    Tier (animal) + ‎un- → ‎Untier (beast, monster)
    Wetter (weather) + ‎un- → ‎Unwetter (storm, severe weather)

Derived termsEdit


GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

un-

  1. Romanization of 𐌿𐌽-

LuxembourgishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Compare German an-, Dutch aan-, English on-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. prefixed form of un (at, on)
    1. at, to, toward
    2. on, up
    3. used to make certain intransitive verbs transitive
      léien (to tell a lie) + ‎un- → ‎uléien (to lie to someone)

Usage notesEdit

  • The prefix is contracted to u- before non-alveolar consonants.

Derived termsEdit


ManxEdit

EtymologyEdit

From un (one, single).

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. uni-, mono-, one

Derived termsEdit


Old EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-West Germanic *un-, from Proto-Germanic *un-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, a prefix use of the particle *ne (not). Cognate with Old Frisian un-, Old Saxon un-, Old Dutch un-, Old High German un-, Old Norse ó-, Gothic 𐌿𐌽- (un-). The Indo-European root is also the source of Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-), Latin in-, and Old Irish in-.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈun/ (in both nouns and verbal derivatives)

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. negation or absence of: un-, non- (added to nouns and adjectives)
    un- + ‎dēadlīċ (mortal) → ‎undēadlīċ (immortal)
    un- + ‎dēop (deep) → ‎undēop (shallow)
    un- + ‎dīere (expensive) → ‎undīere (cheap)
    un- + ‎druncen (drunk) → ‎undruncen (sober)
    un- + ‎ġewǣpnod (armed) → ‎unġewǣpnod (unarmed)
    un- + ‎sċyldiġ (guilty) → ‎unsċyldiġ (innocent)
    un- + ‎rīpe (mature) → ‎unrīpe (immature)
  2. bad (added to nouns to denote a pejorative sense; compare mis-, mal-)
    un- + ‎dǣd (action) → ‎undǣd (crime)
    un- + ‎ġelimp (event) → ‎unġelimp (accident)
    un- + ‎hlīsa (fame) → ‎unhlīsa (infamy)
    un- + ‎lǣċe (doctor) → ‎unlǣċe (bad doctor)
    un- + ‎lyft (air) → ‎unlyft (“malaria,” lit. “bad air”)
    un- + ‎mann (person) → ‎unmann (brute)
    un- + ‎rǣd (advice) → ‎unrǣd (bad advice)
    un- + ‎stenċ (smell) → ‎unstenċ (stench)
    un- + ‎swefn (dream) → ‎unswefn (bad dream)
    un- + ‎tīma (time) → ‎untīma (wrong time)
    un- + ‎weder (weather) → ‎unweder (bad weather)
    un- + ‎þēaw (habit) → ‎unþēaw (bad habit)
DescendantsEdit
  • Middle English: un-

Etymology 2Edit

Originally an alternative form of on-, from Proto-Germanic *and-. Cognate with Old Frisian und-, Old Saxon ant-, Old High German ant- (German ent-).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. forms verbs from verbs, with an opposite or reversive sense

Derived termsEdit


Old High GermanEdit

From Proto-West Germanic *un-, from Proto-Germanic *un-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, a prefix use of the particle *ne (not). The Indo-European root is also the source of Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-), Latin in-, and Old Irish in-.

PrefixEdit

un-

  1. un-; prefix of negation, absence or contrariness

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle High German: un-
    • Alemannic German: o-, u-
    • German: un-
    • Luxembourgish: un-