悲しい

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
かな
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling 哀しい

EtymologyEdit

⟨/kanasi1ki1/⟩/kanasiki//kanaɕiː/

From Old Japanese 悲し (kanasi, emotionally overwhelming: dear, beloved, sad), ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kanasi (beloved, dear). Attested amply in the Man'yōshū (8th century).

Originally meant "dear, beloved, lovely", in addition to "sad". The former senses were later taken over by other adjectives such as 愛らしい (airashii) and 可愛い (kawaii). See also the Ryukyuan cognates such as Miyako かなす (kanasï) and Okinawan 愛さん (kanasan, beloved, lovely, cute), which do not mean "sad".

PronunciationEdit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "悲しい"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 悲しく なしく [kànáshíkú]
Terminal (終止形) 悲しい なしい
なし
[kànáshíí]
[kànáshíꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 悲しい なしい [kànáshíí]
Key constructions
Informal negative 悲しくない なしくな [kànáshíkúnáꜜì]
Informal past 悲しかった なしかった [kànáshíꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 悲しくなかった なしくなかった [kànáshíkúnáꜜkàttà]
Formal 悲しいです なしいです [kànáshíꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 悲しくて なしくて [kànáshíꜜkùtè]
Conditional 悲しければ なしければ [kànáshíꜜkèrèbà]

AdjectiveEdit

(かな)しい (kanashii-i (adverbial (かな)しく (kanashiku))

  1. sad
InflectionEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN