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Appendix:Japanese verbs

Modern JapaneseEdit

This section deals only with Japanese as written and spoken in 21st and late 20th centuries. The following sections are mainly based on Shinkichi Hashimoto's grammar system (known as “school grammar,” or  (がっ) (こう) (ぶん) (ぽう) (gakkō-bunpō, school grammar)), for consistency with Japanese dictionaries. See the corresponding Wikipedia article for the alternative grammar system used in learning materials for non-native speakers picking up modern Japanese, known as  () (ほん) () (きょう) (いく) (ぶん) (ぽう) (nihongo-kyōiku-bunpō, Japanese-language education grammar).

ConjugationEdit

Because the Japanese language is written without space, different grammar systems tend to have different notions on what constitutes a word. The  (がっ) (こう) (ぶん) (ぽう) (gakkō-bunpō) system tends to cut sentences into smaller pieces to help understand the development of the language. It is used in Japanese schools and dictionaries, but is not designed for a foreign audience who have no experience with the language. A new grammar called[1]  () (ほん) () (きょう) (いく) (ぶん) (ぽう) (nihongo-kyōiku-bunpō) has been devised since 1960s. It simplifies the “school grammar” system a lot and is widely used in learning materials for non-native speakers. The difference is that the former provide “stems” used to form words and the latter provide prefabricated forms to be used in sentences.

Wiktionary entries for Japanese verbs list conjugated forms in both systems in the “Conjugation” table, those from the former as “stem forms” and latter as “key constructions”.

Stem formsEdit

Each verb can be conjugated to six conjugated forms in Hashimoto's grammar system, called stem forms on Wiktionary. Some of them can be used alone, while others must be followed by auxiliary verbs ( (じょ) (どう) () (jodōshi)). For the conjugation classes, regular verbs are either consonant-stemed, called godan (五段活用 (ごだんかつよう) (godan katsuyō)), or vowel-stemed, called ichidan (上一段活用 (かみいちだんかつよう) (kami ichidan katsuyō) or 下一段活用 (しもいちだんかつよう) (shimo ichidan katsuyō)). The following table illustrates the six conjugated forms of godan verbs, ichidan verbs, and the two irregular verbs  () (kuru) and する (suru) in modern Japanese:

The stem forms for verbs
Stem forms Godan verb
eg. 行く (iku)
Ichidan verb
eg.食べる (taberu)
kuru suru
Imperfective (未然形) 行か (ika) 食べ (tabe) (ko) (sa/shi)
Continuative (連用形) 行き (iki) 食べ (tabe) (ki) (shi)
Terminal (終止形) 行く (iku) 食べる (taberu) 来る (kuru) する (suru)
Attributive (連体形) 行く (iku) 食べる (taberu) 来る (kuru) する (suru)
Hypothetical (仮定形) 行け (ike) 食べれ (tabere) 来れ (kure) すれ (sure)
Imperative (命令形) 行け (ike) 食べろ (tabero) 来い (koi) しろ (shiro)

Godan conjugationEdit

The consonant-stemed verbs in modern Japanese, except for the irregular two, all belong to this conjugation called go-dan, or literally “five-grade”. These verbs conjugate by changing the last vowel, which is -u for the lemma, to -a for the imperfective form, to -i for the continuative form, and to -e for the hypothetical and imperative forms. Four vowel endings can be covered in this conjugation, which gave its former name yo-dan (four-grade), and the fifth ending, , arises from the orthographic reform of 1946.

Conjugation table for godan verbs
if the final kana is the stem ends in and the final kana conjugates to sound change
with ~う
sound change
with ~た・~て
imperf.
未然形
cont.
連用形
terminal
終止形
attrib.
連体形
hypot.
仮定形
imperat.
命令形
(ku) /k/ (カ行五段活用) (ka) (ki) (ku) (ku) (ke) (ke) こう () いた・いて (ita, ite)
(行く becomes 行った・行って)
(gu) /g/ (ガ行五段活用) (ga) (gi) (gu) (gu) (ge) (ge) ごう () いだ・いで (ida, ide)
(su) /s/ (サ行五段活用) (sa) (shi) (su) (su) (se) (se) そう () した・して (shita, shite)
(tsu) /t/ (タ行五段活用) (ta) (chi) (tsu) (tsu) (te) (te) とう () った・って (-tta, -tte)
(うた・うて for some verbs ending in う,
such as 問う・請う)
(u) /w/ (ワ行五段活用) (wa) (i) (u) (u) (e) (e) おう (ō)
(ru) /r/ (ラ行五段活用) (ra) (ri) (ru) (ru) (re) (re) ろう ()
(bu) /b/ (バ行五段活用) (ba) (bi) (bu) (bu) (be) (be) ぼう () んだ・んで (-nda, -nde)
(mu) /m/ (マ行五段活用) (ma) (mi) (mu) (mu) (me) (me) もう ()
(nu) /n/ (ナ行五段活用) (na) (ni) (nu) (nu) (ne) (ne) のう ()

Ichidan conjugationEdit

The vowel-stemed verbs in modern Japanese belong either to kami-ichi-dan (“upper-monograde”) conjugation, or shimo-ichi-dan (“lower-monograde”) conjugation, depending on whether the vowel before the changing part is i or e. These verbs conjugate by the final kana, which is (ru) for the lemma, by dropping it for the imperfective and continuative forms, changing it to (re) for the hypothetical form, to (yo) for the written imperative, and (ro) for the spoken imperative. The next-to-last kana does not change, though it is traditionally included in conjugation tables for consistency with bigrades.

Conjugation table for ichidan verbs
if the final two kana are the stem ends in and the final two kana conjugate to
imperf.
未然形
cont.
連用形
terminal
終止形
attrib.
連体形
hypot.
仮定形
imperat.
命令形
(-ru) カ行上一段活用 for きる, サ行下一段活用 for せる, etc. (-ru) (-ru) (-re) (-yo) (written)
(-ro) (spoken)

Irregular verbsEdit

The irregular verb 来る (kuru, to come) is said to belong to the ka-gyō henkaku conjugation (カ行変格活用, abbreviated as ka-hen カ変), which is relatively simple.

Conjugation table for kuru
verb conjugation class and the verb conjugates to
imperf.
未然形
cont.
連用形
terminal
終止形
attrib.
連体形
hypot.
仮定形
imperat.
命令形
くる (-ru) カ行変格活用 (ko) (ki) くる (kuru) くる (kuru) くれ (kure) こい (koi)

The irregular verb する (suru, to do) is said to belong to the sa-gyō henkaku conjugation (サ行変格活用, abbreviated as sa-hen サ変). This conjugation is more complicated because it actually comes in four variants. (As with ichidan conjugation, ~よ is the written imperative and ~ろ is the spoken.)

Conjugation table for suru[2]
context imperfective
未然形
continuative
連用形
terminal
終止形
attributive
連体形
hypothetical
仮定形
imperative
命令形
passive
~(ら)れる
causative
~(さ)せる
negative
~ない
volitional
~(よ)う
general case さ-れる さ-せる し-ない し-よう する する すれ せよ, しろ
single kanji ending in /t/ sokuon + する
e.g. 達する
せ-られる, し-られる し-させる し-ない し-よう する する すれ せよ, しろ
single kanji ending in /n/ or /ŋ/ + ずる
e.g. 論ずる
じ-られる, ぜ-られる じ-させる じ-ない じ-よう ずる, じる ずる, じる ずれ, じれ ぜよ, じろ
single kanji ending in /i/ or /ku/ + する
e.g. 愛する
さ-れる さ-せる さ-ない, し-ない し-よう,そ-う する, する, すれ, せよ, しろ,

HistoryEdit

Conjugation classes for Japanese verbs are traditionally classified according to the gojūon table. During the Nara period, there were 四段活用, カ行変格活用, サ行変格活用, ナ行変格活用, ラ行変格活用, 上一段活用, 上二段活用, 下二段活用. In the Heian period, the 下一段活用 verb 蹴る appeared. Then, through the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, ナ行変格活用 and ラ行変格活用 became regular 四段活用, and the bigrades gradually evolved into monogrades, a tendency evident during the Edo period. In modern Japanese, bigrades disappeared completely, and since modern kana orthography required that an -au that elided into an /oː/ be written as -ou, 四段活用 now covered all the five vowels and was usually called 五段活用 in modern Japanese contexts.[2]

Key constructionsEdit

Japanese is generally an agglutinative language, in which verb stems can have a wide range of endings attached to modify their meaning. These endings range from auxiliary verbs (助動詞), particles (助詞), to supplementary verbs (補助動詞), and they are attached in a regular way. See Appendix:Japanese auxiliary verbs for a usage guide to them. This section deals with the most common constructions in modern Japanese.

affirmative negative
non-past terminal (終止形) / attributive (連体形)
eg. つく (tsuku)
imperfective (未然形) + ない (nai)
eg. つかない (tsukanai)
non-past (polite) continuative (連用形) + ます (masu)
eg. つきます (tsukimasu)
continuative (連用形) + ません (masen)
eg. つきません (tsukimasen)
past continuative (連用形) + (ta)
eg. ついた (tsuita)
imperfective (未然形) + なかった (nakatta)
eg. つかなかった (tsukanakatta)
past (polite) continuative (連用形) + ました (mashita)
eg. つきました (tsukimashita)
continuative (連用形) + ませんでした (masen deshita)
eg. つきませんでした (tsukimasen deshita)
continuative continuative (連用形)
eg. つき (tsuki)
imperfective (未然形) + (zu)
eg. つかず (tsukazu)
conjunctive continuative (連用形) + (te)
eg. ついて (tsuite)
imperfective (未然形) + なくて (nakute)
eg. つかなくて (tsukanakute)
hypothetical conditional hypothetical (仮定形) + (ba)
eg. つけば (tsukeba)
imperfective (未然形) + なければ (nakereba)
eg. つかなければ (tsukanakereba)
volitional (godan) imperfective (未然形) +
(ichidan, irregular) imperfective (未然形) + よう ()
eg. つこう (tsukō)
(godan, irregular) terminal (終止形) + まい (mai)
(ichidan, irregular) imperfective (未然形) + まい (mai)
eg. つくまい (tsuku mai)
volitional (polite) continuative (連用形) + ましょう (mashō)
eg. つきましょう (tsukimashō)
continuative (連用形) + ますまい (masu mai)
eg. つきますまい (tsukimasu mai)
imperative imperative (命令形)
eg. つけ (tsuke)
terminal (終止形) + (na)
eg. つくな (tsukuna)
potential, causative, passive, and causative-passive see below

た, ない, and ますEdit

Japanese verbs do not conjugate according to number or person, and there are only two tenses: past and non-past. The non-past tense describes actions in the future, states or habitual actions in the present, facts, or rarely, volition and past actions. The past tense describes past events, the perfective aspect, confirmation, or interrogation.

The first eight forms in the table above can readily serve as a predicate of a sentence. Note that all other components come to the left.

アリス (まい) (にち)コーヒー ()/ ()みますArisu wa mainichi kōhī o nomu / nomimasu.Alice drinks coffee every day.
アリス (でん) () (ばん) (ごう) ()らない/ ()りませんArisu no denwabangō o shiranai / shirimasen.I don't know Alice's telephone number.
 () (のう) (とも) (だち) (いえ) ()/ ()ましたKinō, tomodachi ga ie ni kita / kimashita.Friends came to my house yesterday.
 (せん) (しゅう) (はたら)かなかった/ (はたら)きませんでしたか。Senshū hatarakanakatta / hatarakimasen deshita ka.You didn't work in the last week?

The non-polite forms can also be used attributively, in which case the verb (or the clause formed from the verb) precedes the noun it modifies:

 (わたし)明日 (あした) () () (こう) ()watashi ga ashita noru hikōkithe plane that I'll take tomorrow
 () (ども)いない (ふう) ()kodomo no inai fūfua couple who have no child
トムが () (のう) ()ったパソコンtomu ga kinō katta pasokonthe computer that Tom bought yesterday
トップ10 (10) (はい)らなかった (こと) ()toppu 10 ni hairanakatta kotobawords that didn't enter the top 10

Notes:

  • The polite forms are used when talking to a person of higher rank, or a person one is not familiar with. They are used only for the predicate part of a sentences and do not modify nouns, nor do they appear in most grammar patterns.
  • The plain negative form of a verb is its imperfective stem followed by ない (or archaically ). For the negative form of ある, however, its antonym ない is used. For the polite negative form, both ありません and ないです exist.
  • For the plain past form, notice the sound changes when a godan (five-grade) verb is followed by . The plain past form also appears in certain grammar patterns: ~たことある (to have done something), ~たあと (after doing something), ~たほう良い (had better do something), たりたりする (to do things such as ...), たら (if ..., after ...), ~たばかりところ (just when ...)

Continuative formEdit

The continuative form of a verb also appears in many types of grammar. For many words the continuative form is also a noun; for example: 休む (yasumu) means “to rest” while 休み (yasumi) could mean “rest”, “break”, “holiday”, “absence”, etc. In this way, there are constructions like 泳ぎ行く (oyogi ni iku, go to swim) and 遊び来る (asobi ni kuru, come to play).

 () () () (もつ) () ()きます。Gogo, nimotsu o tori ni ikimasu.I will go to fetch my luggage this afternoon.

Certain kinds of compound verbs are produced by attaching a word to the continuative form of a verb; for example: やすい (-yasui, easy to do), (-kata, way of doing something), 返す (-kaesu, to do something over again). Other constructions include たい (-tai, to want to do something), ながら (-nagara, while doing something), なさい (-nasai, please do something) (used only between friends or to someone of a lower rank), そう (-sō da, to seem likely to do something).

Conjunctive form with てEdit

The conjunctive or te form is spinoff of the continuative form by attaching the particle to it. For godan (five-grade) verbs, the same kinds of sound changes with ~た applies. The particle can be used to link several predicates together, as illustrated below:

アリスは (まい)晩家 (ばんいえ) (かえ)って、テレビを ()ますArisu wa maiban ie e kaette, terebi o mimasu.Alice returns home and watches TV every night.
 () (のう) () (しょ) (かん) ()って (べん) (きょう)しましたKinō toshokan e itte, benkyō shimashita.I went to library and studied yesterday.

When used at the end of a sentence it makes a light command:

 (たす)けてTasukete!Help!
ゆっくりしていってね!Yukkuri shite itte ne!Take it easy!

More often, this form is part of certain kinds of expressions: ~てから (after doing something), ~て(いい) (it's OK to do something), ~てだめ/いけない/ならない (it's not ok to something), ~て下さい (please do something), ~ている (to be doing something), ~てある (to be in the state of ...), ~てばかり (to be always doing something), ~てあげる (to do something to others), ~てくれる (to do something for me), ~てもらう (to receive the favor of doing something), ~ておく (to do something in preparation), ~てしまう (to do something completely or accidentally), ~てみる (to try doing something), etc. When followed by motion verbs like いく and くる as a set expression, the basic meaning is to do something towards a direction (e.g. 帰る is "return", 帰っていく is "go back", while 帰ってくる is "come back"), and the notion of the direction can be abstract (towards the future, up to the present, come to the state, etc.)

Imperative formEdit

The imperative form (命令形) is often irregular in honorific speech; in other cases it can be rude in everyday conversation except when quoted or used in -clauses. It is conjugated:

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -e. For example, 読む becomes 読め.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -ro. For example, 見る becomes 見ろ.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes koi, suru becomes shiro.

Volitional formEdit

The volitional form carries the meaning of "let's do something". It has the same meaning when used alone and means "try to do" when followed by する. It also means "I want to do something", but a less direct way to say this is to follow it by 思う. The conjugation is:

  • godan verbs: change the -u to . For example, 読む becomes 読もう.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -yō. For example, 見る becomes 見よう.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes koyō, suru becomes shiyō.

Hypothetical conditional formEdit

One of way to say "if" is to attach to the 仮定形 of a verb, which is formed by changing the final vowel u (whether in -u, -ru, kuru, suru) to an e. "AばB" implies that A is a condition for B to happen.

Potential formEdit

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -eru. For example, 読む becomes 読める.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -rareru. For example, 見る becomes 見られる.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes korareru, suru becomes dekiru.

Sometimes the ra can be left out (a practice called ら抜き言葉). The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb; for example, 信じられない (unbelievable).

Causative formEdit

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach seru. For example, 読む becomes 読ませる.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -saseru. For example, 見る becomes 見させる.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes kosaseru, suru becomes saseru.

The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb. Sometimes the せる is abbreviated as a single す and conjugates as godan verbs. The object is usually introduced with , but when there is another object with (such as "A made B sing a song"), is used instead.

Passive formEdit

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach reru. For example, 読む becomes 読まれる.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -rareru. For example, 見る becomes 見られる.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes korareru, suru becomes sareru.

The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb. Aside from the passive voice (where the performer of the verb is introduced with or によって), the form is also used to show politeness in which case the sentence structure does not change. In casual speech, the せる can be abbreviated as a single す and conjugates as godan verbs. The passive form is sometimes used for a victimhood state, for example, 逃げられた is not "was run away by the rabbit", but "rabbit ran away, resulting in loss".

Irregular conjugation related to polite speechEdit

  • The imperative form of くれる is くれ.
  • The imperative form of some godan verbs have the ru replaced with i:
Verb Imperative form
くださる ください
なさる なさい
いらっしゃる いらっしゃい
おっしゃる おっしゃい
はがきを5枚 (ごまい)ください
Hagaki o gomai kudasai.
Please give me five postcards.

The i-ending imperative forms may be followed by mase:

いらっしゃいませ
Irasshaimase!
Welcome!

TransitivityEdit

Japanese verbs often come in transitive and intransitive pairs, called 他動詞 (tadōshi) and 自動詞 (jidōshi) in Japanese respectively. Intransitive verbs usually take only a subject marked with (ga) or (wa), while transitive verbs can also take an object marked with (o).

 (せん) (せい) (じゅ) (ぎょう) (はじ)める。sensei ga jugyō o hajimeru.The teacher starts the class.
 (じゅ) (ぎょう) (はじ)まる。jugyō ga hajimaru.The class starts.

A motion verb can also be used with (o) even though it is intransitive in Japanese.

 (はし) (わた)hashi o wataruto cross the bridge

When the transitive verb used with たい (tai) to express desire, or in the potential form, the object is usually marked with (ga), but (o) is also OK.

 (みず) ()みたい。mizu ga nomitai.I want to drink water.

Passive forms (ら)れる (-(ra)reru) usually become intransitive and causative forms (さ)せる (-(sa)seru) usually become transitive. てある (-tearu) forms usually become intransitive.

 (まど) ()けてある。mado ga akete aru.The window is opened.

Stem formsEdit

These are the basic forms of verbs as taught in Japan. Verbs have six associated stem forms; three of these each appear in two different ways that are not given separate names, but are used in disjoint contexts. The izenkei (已然形, classical perfective form) is also called the kateikei (仮定形, hypothetical form in modern Japanese). The shūshikei (終止形, terminal form) and rentaikei (連体形, attributive form) are identical for verbs in modern Japanese.

Prototype 起きる 食べる 書く 行く 剥ぐ 射す 待つ 死ぬ 呼ぶ 飲む 掘る 買う 問う くる する
okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Class 上一 下一 カ五 カ五 ガ五 サ五 タ五 ナ五 バ五 マ五 ラ五 ワ五 ワ五 変格 変格
kami-1 shimo-1 ka-5 ka-5 ga-5 sa-5 ta-5 na-5 ba-5 ma-5 ra-5 wa-5 wa-5 ka-hen. sa-hen.
Stem 起き 食べ irreg. irreg.
oki- tabe- kak- ik- hag- sas- mat- shin- yob- nom- hor- ka(*p)- to(*p)- irreg. irreg.
Mizenkei (未然形) 起き 食べ 書か 行か 剥が 射さ 待た 死な 呼ば 飲ま 掘ら 買わ 問わ irreg.
Imperfective (general) oki- tabe- kaka- ika- haga- sasa- mata- shina- yoba- noma- hora- kawa- towa- ko- irreg.
Mizenkei (未然形) 起き 食べ 書こ 行こ 剥ご 射そ 待と 死の 呼ぼ 飲も 掘ろ 買お 問お
Imperfective (volitional) oki- tabe- kako- iko- hago- saso- mato- shino- yobo- nomo- horo- kao- too- ko- shi-
Ren'yōkei (連用形) 起き 食べ 書き 行き 剥ぎ 射し 待ち 死に 呼び 飲み 掘り 買い 問い
Continuative (-i) oki tabe kaki iki hagi sashi machi shini yobi nomi hori kai toi ki shi
Ren'yōkei (連用形) 起き 食べ 書い 行っ 剥い 射し 待っ 死ん 呼ん 飲ん 掘っ 買っ 問う
Continuative (other) oki- tabe- kai- i_- hai- sashi- ma_- shin- yon- non- ho_- ka_- tou- ki- shi-
Shūshikei (終止形) 起きる 食べる 書く 行く 剥ぐ 射す 待つ 死ぬ 呼ぶ 飲む 掘る 買う 問う くる する
Terminal okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Rentaikei (連体形) 起きる 食べる 書く 行く 剥ぐ 射す 待つ 死ぬ 呼ぶ 飲む 掘る 買う 問う くる する
Attributive okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Izenkei (已然形) 起きれ 食べれ 書け 行け 剥げ 射せ 待て 死ね 呼べ 飲め 掘れ 買え 問え くれ すれ
Classical Perfective okire- tabere- kake- ike- hage- sase- mate- shine- yobe- nome- hore- kae- toe- kure- sure-
Meireikei (命令形) 起きよ 食べよ 書け 行け 剥げ 射せ 待て 死ね 呼べ 飲め 掘れ 買え 問え こい せよ
Imperative (written) okiyo tabeyo kake ike hage sase mate shine yobe nome hore kae toe koi seyo
Meireikei (命令形) 起きろ 食べろ 書け 行け 剥げ 射せ 待て 死ね 呼べ 飲め 掘れ 買え 問え こい しろ
Imperative (spoken) okiro tabero kake ike hage sase mate shine yobe nome hore kae toe koi shiro

The ren'yōkei (連用形, -i form), shūshikei (終止形, terminal form), rentaikei (連体形, attributive form), and meireikei (命令形, imperative form) can appear on their own. The other inflections require suffixes.

Complex formsEdit

Form Classes Stem Suffix Result is Examples
Passive 受動態 1, kuru imperfective (general) られる shimo-1 verb 食べられる
5 imperfective (general) れる shimo-1 verb 書かれる
suru irreg. irreg. shimo-1 verb される
Causative 使役態 1, kuru imperfective (general) させる or さす shimo-1 verb 食べさせる
5 imperfective (general) せる or shimo-1 verb 書かせる
suru irreg. irreg. shimo-1 verb させる or さす
Potential 可能法 1 imperfective (general) られる shimo-1 verb 食べられる
5, kuru, 1 (colloq.) classical imperfective shimo-1 verb 書ける, 起きれる
suru defective defective 出来る (せる in compounds)

Other formsEdit

Form Classes Stem Suffix Result is Examples
Volitional 1, kuru, suru imperfective (volitional) よう indeclinable 食べよう, こよう, しよう
5 imperfective (volitional) indeclinable 書こう, 話そう
Negative all imperfective (general) ない i-adjective 食べない, 書かない, こない, しない
Negative (archaic) all imperfective (general) indeclinable 食べぬ, 書かぬ
Negative Continuative (-zu) 1, 5, kuru imperfective (general) indeclinable 食べず, 書かず, こず
suru irreg. irreg. indeclinable せず
Negative Conjunctive (-naide) all imperfective (general) ないで indeclinable 起きないで, 書かないで, こないで, しないで
Past tense 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 食べた, きた, した, 書いた, 行った, 話した, 待った, 作った, 払った, 問った
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 泳いだ, 死んだ, 読んだ, 飲んだ
Conjunctive (-te) 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 食べて, きて, して, 書いて, 行って, 話して, 待って, 作って, 払って, 問って
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable 泳いで, 死んで, 読んで, 飲んで
Hypothetical (-ba) all classical imperfective (hypothetical) indeclinable 起きれば, 書けば, くれば, すれば
Conditional (-tara) 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) たら indeclinable 食べたら, きたら, したら, 書いたら
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) だら indeclinable 泳いだら, 死んだら, 読んだら, 飲んだら
Currently incomplete

Suffixes to the continuative (-i) formEdit

There are several suffixes that attach to the continuative (-i) form. These are some of the most common:

Form Suffix Result is Examples
Formal (-masu) ます irregular verb 行きます
Desire (-tai) たい i-adjective 食べたい

Classical JapaneseEdit

The following table shows the conjugations of classical verbs as well as the modern equivalents in historical kana orthography. Note the “school grammar” terminology and notion of verb forms. A conjugation table for auxiliary verbs appears at Appendix:Japanese auxiliary verbs (todo).

動詞活用表[3]
文語 (classical) 口語 (modern)
種類
conjugation
class

consonant
of suffix
語例
example
word
未然
irrealis
連用
cont.
終止
terminal
連體
attrib.
已然
realis
命令
imperat.
種類
conjugation
class

consonant
of suffix
語例
example
word
未然
irrealis
連用
cont.
終止
terminal
連體
attrib.
假定
hypot.
命令
imperat.
四段
yodan
four-grade
-k- 行(ゆ)く yu.ku ka ki ku ku ke ke 四段
yodan
four-grade
-k- 行(ゆ)く yu.ku ka ki ku ku ke ke
-g- 漕(こ)ぐ ko.gu ga gi gu gu ge ge -g- 漕(こ)ぐ ko.gu ga gi gu gu ge ge
-s- 增(ま)す ma.su sa si su su se se -s- 增(ま)す ma.su sa si su su se se
-t- 打(う)つ u.tu ta ti tu tu te te -t- 打(う)つ u.tu ta ti tu tu te te
-h- 思(おも)ふ omo.hu ha hi hu hu he he -h- 思(おも)ふ omo.hu ha hi hu hu he he
-b- 飛(と)ぶ to.bu ba bi bu bu be be -b- 飛(と)ぶ to.bu ba bi bu bu be be
-m- 讀(よ)む yo.mu ma mi mu mu me me -m- 讀(よ)む yo.mu ma mi mu mu me me
-r- 取(と)る to.ru ra ri ru ru re re -r- 取(と)る to.ru ra ri ru ru re re
ラ變
ra-hen
r- irregular
-r- 有(あ)り a.ri ra ri ri ru re re -r- 有(あ)る a.ru ra ri ru ru re re
ナ變
na-hen
n- irregular
-n- 死(し)ぬ si.nu na ni nu nuru nure ne -n- 死(し)ぬ si.nu na ni nu nu ne ne
下一段
shimo-ichidan
lower-monograde
-k- 蹴(け)る keru ke ke keru keru kere keyo -r- 蹴(け)る ke.ru ra ri ru ru re re
下二段
shimo-nidan
lower-bigrade
(a) 得(う) u e e u uru ure eyo 下一段
shimo-ichidan
lower-monograde
(a) 得(え)る eru e e eru eru ere eyo
-k- 受(う)く u.ku ke ke ku kuru kure keyo -k- 受(う)ける u.keru ke ke keru keru kere keyo
-g- 上(あ)ぐ a.gu ge ge gu guru gure geyo -g- 上(あ)げる a.geru ge ge geru geru gere geyo
-s- 寄(よ)す yo.su se se su suru sure seyo -s- 寄(よ)せる yo.seru se se seru seru sure seyo
-z- 交(ま)ず ma.zu ze ze zu zuru zure zeyo -z- 交(ま)ぜる ma.zeru ze ze zeru zeru zere zeyo
-t- 捨(す)つ su.tu te te tu turu ture teyo -t- 捨(す)てる su.teru te te teru teru tere teyo
-d- 出(い)づ i.du de de du duru dure deyo -d- 出(で)る deru de de deru deru dere deyo
-n- 尋(たづ)ぬ tadu.nu ne ne nu nuru nure neyo -n- 尋(たづ)ねる tadu.neru ne ne neru neru nere neyo
-h- 考(かんが)ふ kanga.hu he he hu huru hure heyo -h- 考(かんが)へる kanga.heru he he heru heru here heyo
-b- 調(しら)ぶ sira.bu be be bu buru bure beyo -b- 調(しら)べる sira.beru be be beru beru bere beyo
-m- 止(と)む to.mu me me mu muru mure meyo -m- 止(と)める to.meru me me meru meru mere meyo
-y- 越(こ)ゆ ko.yu e e yu yuru yure eyo -y- 越(こ)える ko.eru e e eru eru ere eyo
-r- 晴(は)る ha.ru re re ru ruru rure reyo -r- 晴(は)れる ha.reru re re reru reru rere reyo
-w- 植(う)う u.u we we u uru ure weyo -w- 植(う)ゑる u.weru we we weru weru were weyo
上一段
kami-ichidan
upper-monograde
-k- 著(き)る kiru ki ki kiru kiru kire kiyo 上一段
kami-ichidan
upper-monograde
-k- 著(き)る kiru ki ki kiru kiru kire kiyo
-n- 似(に)る niru ni ni niru niru nire niyo -n- 似(に)る niru ni ni niru niru nire niyo
-h- 干(ひ)る hiru hi hi hiru hiru hire hiyo -h- 干(ひ)る hiru hi hi hiru hiru hire hiyo
-m- 見(み)る miru mi mi miru miru mire miyo -m- 見(み)る miru mi mi miru miru mire miyo
-y- 老(お)いる o.iru i i iru iru ire iyo -y- 老(お)いる o.iru i i iru iru ire iyo
-w- 居(ゐ)る wiru wi wi wiru wiru wire wiyo -w- 居(ゐ)る wiru wi wi wiru wiru wire wiyo
上二段
kami-nidan
upper-bigrade
-k- 起(お)く o.ku ki ki ku kuru kure kiyo -k- 起(お)きる o.kiru ki ki kiru kiru kire kiyo
-g- 過(す)ぐ su.gu gi gi gu guru gure giyo -g- 過(す)ぎる su.giru gi gi giru giru gire giyo
-t- 落(お)つ o.tu ti ti tu turu ture tiyo -t- 落(お)ちる o.tiru ti ti tiru tiru tire tiyo
-d- 恥(は)づ ha.du di di du duru dure diyo -d- 恥(は)ぢる ha.diru di di ziru ziru zire diyo
-h- 強(し)ふ si.hu hi hi hu huru hure hiyo -h- 強(し)ひる si.hiru hi hi hiru hiru hire hiyo
-b- 亡(ほろ)ぶ horo.bu bi bi bu buru bure biyo -b- 亡(ほろ)びる horo.biru bi bi biru biru bire biyo
-m- 恨(うら)む ura.mu mi mi mu muru mure miyo -m- 恨(うら)みる ura.miru mi mi miru miru mire miyo
-y- 悔(く)ゆ ku.yu i i yu yuru yure iyo -y- 悔(く)いる ku.iru i i iru iru ire iyo
-r- 懲(こ)る ko.ru ri ri ru ruru rure riyo -r- 懲(こ)りる ko.riru ri ri riru riru rire riyo
カ變
ka-hen
k- irregular
-k- 來(く) ku ko ki ku kuru kure koyo カ變
ka-hen
k- irregular
-k- 來(く)る kuru ko ki kuru kuru kure koi
サ變
sa-hen
s- irregular
-s- 爲(す) su se si su suru sure seyo サ變
sa-hen
s- irregular
-s- 爲(す)る suru se
si
si suru suru sure seyo
siro
講(かう)ず kau.zu ze zi zu zuru zure zeyo 講(かう)ずる kau.zuru ze
zi
zi zuru zuru zure zeyo
ziro
The rōmaji are Nihon-shiki transliterations of the kana and do not necessarily reflect the actual sounds.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 日语教学中「学校教育」和「日本语教育」之间的区别及优劣是什么? (in Chinese) (can anybody provide a better source for this?)
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, 広辞苑 (Kōjien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4000801112
  3. ^ Adapted from the Daijiten (大辭典, page 131, volume 26) published in 1936 by Heibonsha (平凡社), which was believed to be out of copyright.