覚える

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
おぼ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
覺える (kyūjitai)

EtymologyEdit

/omo2pu//omwopoju//omwoɸoju//omoɸoju//oboɸoju//oboju//obojuru//obojeru//oboeru/

Ultimately from Old Japanese verb 思ふ (omopu, modern 思う omou, “to think (about or of something)”).[1][2] The historical derivation is roughly as follows:

omopayuomopoyu
The 思ほゆ (omopoyu) form is found in the Nihon Shoki and the Man'yōshū.
omopoyuomofoyuobowoyuoboyu
This change is already evident by the early Heian period.
  • regular historical grammatical shifts occurring for classical 下二段活用 (shimo nidan katsuyō, lower bigrade conjugation) verbs:
oboyuoboyuruoboyeruoboeru
This set of shifts occurred during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods.

The verb was originally used in intransitive and passive contexts, in accordance with its derivation. It began to be used in more active and transitive contexts starting from roughly the mid-Heian period, with the learn and memorize senses appearing in the Kamakura period.[1]

PronunciationEdit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "覚える"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
覚える ぼえ [òbóéꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) 覚えろ ぼえ [òbóéꜜrò]
Key constructions
Passive 覚えられる ぼえられ [òbóéráréꜜrù]
Causative 覚えさせる ぼえさせ [òbóésáséꜜrù]
Potential 覚えられる ぼえられ [òbóéráréꜜrù]
Volitional 覚えよう ぼえよ [òbóéyóꜜò]
Negative 覚えない ぼえない [òbóéꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 覚えなかった ぼえなかった [òbóéꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 覚えます ぼえま [òbóémáꜜsù]
Perfective 覚えた えた [òbóꜜètà]
Conjunctive 覚えて えて [òbóꜜètè]
Hypothetical conditional 覚えれば ぼえれば [òbóéꜜrèbà]

VerbEdit

(おぼ)える (oboerutransitive ichidan (stem (おぼ) (oboe), past (おぼ)えた (oboeta))

  1. to recall, to remember
  2. to learn
  3. to memorize
    ()()(おぼ)える
    kashi o oboeru
    to memorize lyrics
  4. to feel (an emotion or sense)
    ()()(かん)(おぼ)える
    iwakan o oboeru
    to get the sense that something is off

ConjugationEdit

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN