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Kanji in this term
しも
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
kun’yomi goon kan’on
 
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EtymologyEdit

Compound of (shimo, lower) +‎ 二段活用 (nidan katsuyō, bigrade conjugation).[1][2]

Literally, 下二段 (shimo nidan, lower bigrade) refers to how the inflected endings are located in the gojūon table. (shimo, lower) means the vowel e, which is written “below” the vowel i, the other inflection-related vowel. 二段 (nidan, two grades) means two vowels are involved, since each (dan, row) of the table contains one vowel. Thus this can be understood as “two-voweled conjugation in e”.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Tokyo) もにだんかつよー [shìmó nídáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [6])[2]
  • IPA(key): [ɕimo̞ ɲ̟idã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

NounEdit

下二段活用 (hiragana しもにだんかつよう, rōmaji shimo nidan katsuyō, historical hiragana しもにだんくわつよう)

  1. (Classical Japanese grammar) a verbal conjugation class with the following inflections: -e/-e/-u/-uru/-ure/-e[yo]. Examples:
未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
已然形
Realis
命令形
Imperative
(-, to gain) (e) (e) (u) 得る (uru) 得れ (ure) (e)
得よ (eyo2 → eyo)
受く (uk-, to receive) 受け (uke2 → uke) 受け (uke2 → uke) 受く (uku) 受くる (ukuru) 受くれ (ukere) 受け (uke2 → uke)
受けよ (uke2yo2 → ukeyo)
植う (uw-, to plant) 植ゑ (uwe → ue) 植ゑ (uwe → ue) 植う (*uwu → uu) 植うる (*uwuru → uuru) 植うれ (*uwure → uure) 植ゑ (uwe → ue)
植ゑよ (uweyo2 → ueyo)

The subscripts in the table above indicate differences in vowel class that were already being lost in Old Japanese. It remains unclear what those different vowel classes may have meant. See the Syllables section in the Wikipedia article on Old Japanese for more details.

Usage notesEdit

 () (u) () (eru, to gain)
 () (uku) ()ける (ukeru, to receive)
 () (uu) ()える (ueru, to plant)
 () (uku) ()かる (ukaru, to pass (an examination))
 () (uu) ()わる (uwaru, to be planted)
 () (kuu) () (keru, to kick)

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN