U+3086, ゆ
HIRAGANA LETTER YU

[U+3085]
Hiragana
[U+3087]

Japanese

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hentaigana form (obsolete variant hiragana form (𛃥). Another form of cursive )
Stroke order
 

Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable

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(yu

  1. The hiragana syllable (yu). Its equivalent in katakana is (yu). It is the thirty-seventh syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ya-gyō u-dan, row ya, section u).
See also
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Etymology 2

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
J
[noun] (possibly obsolete) yuzu (Citrus junos)
[proper noun] a surname
(This term, , is the hiragana spelling of the above term.)
For a list of all kanji read as , see Category:Japanese kanji read as ゆ.)

(The following entries are uncreated: , , , , , , , , .)

Etymology 3

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
3
[noun] warm or hot water
[noun] bathwater
[noun] a hot spring
[noun] a medicinal bath
[noun] a medicinal decoction
[noun] bilgewater
[noun] molten metal used in casting or founding
[noun] urine
2
[prefix] a bow, a bow shape
S
[noun] (Shinto) holy, pure, sacred
(This term, , is the hiragana spelling of the above terms.)
For a list of all kanji read as , see Category:Japanese kanji read as ゆ.)

Etymology 4

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From Old Japanese.

Suffix

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(-yu

  1. (Classical Japanese) attaches to the 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis form) of verbs
    1. expresses passiveness
    2. expresses possibility
    3. expresses natural, spontaneous occurrence
Conjugation
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Derived terms
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Okinawan

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Etymology

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From Proto-Ryukyuan *wo, from Proto-Japonic *wo.

Cognate with standard Japanese (wo).

Pronunciation

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Particle

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(yu

  1. (archaic, literary, with transitive verb) accusative case particle
    (たる)(うら)みとぅてぃ()ちゅが(はま)()(どぅり)
    Taru-yu uramituti nachuga hamachiduri.
    Who do you hate when you sing, the plover on the beach?
  2. (archaic, literary, with intransitive verb) away from, off
  3. (archaic, literary, with intransitive verb) along, following a specified route, track, orbit, etc.

Usage notes

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In modern Okinawan parlance this accusative particle is simply omitted from direct objects and the like, turning the language into a marked nominative language.

References

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  • ” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary (archived; reopens 2024).

Old Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Alternative spelling

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

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(-yu)

  1. attaches to the 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis form) of verbs
    1. expresses passiveness
    2. expresses possibility
    3. expresses natural, spontaneous occurrence
Usage notes
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  • The alternative kanji spelling of this verb suffix derives from Middle Chinese (ʃɨʌX), a prefix attached to verbs to form noun phrases, indicating the patient of the verb, similar to a passive participle. In writing, this is used prefixally as in Chinese, by adding it before the kanji of the verb. The resulting compound is read as the irrealis stem of the verb plus the terminal (yu) or attributive ゆる (yuru), depending on the grammar required by the syntax. Examples are 所謂 (ipayuru), 所念 (omopoyu), 所見 (mi1yu), 所聞 (ki1ko2yu), 所知 (sirayu).
Conjugation
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Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Japanese: (-yu)える (-eru)

Etymology 2

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle

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(yu)

  1. since
  2. through
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 3, poem 318:
      , text here
      田兒之浦打出眞白不盡高嶺爾雪波零家留
      Tago1-no2-ura yu utiidete mi1reba ma-siro1 ni so2 Puzi no2 takane ni yuki1 pa purike1ru
      We passed through Tago Bay while looking at the truly-white peak of Fuji from the falling snow.
  3. by (means of)
  4. from
Derived terms
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Descendants
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Etymology 3

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Noun

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(yu)

  1. : hot water, hot spring