었 • (eot)
- A Hangul syllabic block made up of ㅇ, ㅓ, and ㅆ.
어 (eo, verbal infinitive suffix) + 있 (it, “to exist; to have”), due to a seventeenth-century semantic shift of "exists in a state of having VERBed" to "VERBed".
- IPA(key): [ʌ̹t̚]
- Phonetic hangeul: [얻]
|Revised Romanization (translit.)?
—었 • (-eot)
- -ed (past tense marker for sentence-final verbs and adjectives)
그것들은 정말 간단한 것들이었다.
- Geugeotdeureun jeongmal gandanhan geotdeurieotda.
- They were really simple things.
었 (eot, “eot”) is used after syllables with “dark” vowels, i.e. 어 (eo, “eo”) and 우 (u, “u”). After “bright” vowels, 았 (at, “at”) is used instead. If the syllable to which 었 (eot, “eot”) is appended ends in the vowel 어 (eo, “eo”) or 으 (eu, “eu”), the two syllables usually contract:
- 서다 (seoda, “to stand; to stop”): 서 (seo, “seo”) + 었 (eot, “-ed”) + 다 (da, “da”): 섰다 (seotda, “stood, stopped”)
- 쓰다 (sseuda, “to write; to be bitter”): 쓰 (sseu, “sseu”) + 었 (eot, “-ed”) + 다 (da, “da”): 썼다 (seotda, “wrote, was bitter”)