Korean edit

Etymology edit

Korean numbers (edit)
 ←  10  ←  19 20 30  → 
    Native isol.: 스물 (seumul)
    Native attr.: 스무 (seumu)
    Sino-Korean: 이십 (isip)
    Hanja: 二十

Sino-Korean word from 二十 (twenty)

Pronunciation edit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ˈi(ː)ɕʰip̚]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.
Revised Romanization?isip
Revised Romanization (translit.)?isib
Yale Romanization?īsip

Numeral edit

이십 (isip) (hanja 二十)

  1. (Sino-Korean numeral) twenty
    Synonyms: 스무 (seumu, twenty, native determiner numeral), 스물 (seumul, twenty, native nominal numeral)

Usage notes edit

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세 (hana-man deo juse-yo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (il deohagi ir-eun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.