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U+C774, 이
HANGUL SYLLABLE I
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:d-l

[U+C773]
Hangul Syllables
[U+C775]

Contents

Cia-CiaEdit

PrepositionEdit

(’i)

  1. the locative particle: in; at

KoreanEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key)[i]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? i
Revised Romanization (translit.)? i
McCune–Reischauer? i
Yale Romanization? i
Audio
(file)

Etymology 1Edit





의 ←→ 자

SyllableEdit

(i)

  1. A Hangul syllabic block made up of and .

Etymology 2Edit

First attested in the Hunmin jeongeum eonhae (訓民正音諺解本 / 훈민정음언해본), 1446, as Middle Korean (i).

DeterminerEdit

(i)

  1. this
    • 그림을 본 적이 있다. (i geurimeul bon jeogi itda.) I have seen this picture.

PronounEdit

(i)

  1. this (thing)
  2. this person

See alsoEdit

Korean demonstratives edit
Determiner 어느
Pronoun Human 이이 그이 저이
이분 그분 저분 어느 분
이자 그자 저자
이놈 그놈 저놈 어느 놈
이년 그년 저년 어느 년
Object () () 어느
이것 그것 저것 어느
이거 그거 저거 어느
Place 여기 거기 저기 어디
이곳 그곳 저곳 어느 곳
Direction 이쪽 그쪽 저쪽 어느
Time 이때 그때 접때 언제
Verb 이러다 그러다 저러다 어쩌다
이리하다 그리하다 저리하다 어찌하다
Adjective 이렇다 그렇다 저렇다 어떻다
이러하다 그러하다 저러하다 어떠하다
Adverb 이리 그리 저리 어찌
이렇게 그렇게 저렇게 어떻게
이만큼 그만큼 저만큼 얼마만큼(얼만큼)

Etymology 3Edit

Of native Korean origin. Possibly cognate with Old Japanese (i, emphatic nominative particle).

ParticleEdit

(i)

  1. A particle marking a grammatical subject ending with a consonant.
    • 치킨 있다. (I chikini masi itda., “This chicken is delicious.”)
  2. A particle marking a grammatical complement ending with a consonant, before 되다 (doeda, “to become”) and 아니다 (anida, “(to be) not”).
    An adverbial particle 으로/ (euro/ro) can replace the complement marker / (i/ga) when the verb is 되다 (doeda, “to become”).
    • 얼음 었다. (Muri eoreumi doeeotda., “Water became ice.”)
    • 얼음으로 었다. (Muri eoreumeuro doeeotda., “Water became ice.”)
    • 정상 아니다. (Geuneun jeongsang-i anida., “He is not normal.”)
  3. A particle marking an object of desire.
SynonymsEdit
  • (ga) (marks a grammatical subject ending with a vowel)
See alsoEdit
  • (eun) (marks a topic word or phrase ending with a consonant)
  • (neun) (marks a topic word or phrase ending with a vowel)
  • (eul) (marks a direct object ending with a consonant)
  • (reul) (marks a direct object ending with a vowel)
  • Old Japanese (i); emphatic nominative marker

Etymology 4Edit

Of native Korean origin.

SuffixEdit

—이 (-i)

  1. a suffix deriving a passive verb.
    • 저는 희망봅니다. (Jeoneun huimang-eul bomnida., “I see hope.”) → 저에게 희망보입니다. (Jeo-ege huimang-i boimnida., “Hope is seen to me.”)

—이 (-i)

  1. a suffix deriving a causative verb.
SynonymsEdit
  • - (hi)/ (ri)/ (gi)- : suffixes deriving passive verbs.
  • - (hi)/ (ri)/ (gi)/ (u)/ (gu)/ (chu)- : suffixes deriving causative verbs.

Etymology 5Edit

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean (i).

NounEdit

(i)

  1. (dependent) a person.

Etymology 6Edit

Of native Korean origin.

SuffixEdit

—이 (-i)

  1. (after a stem of a verb or an adjective) a suffix deriving a noun.
  2. (in the form of a noun + a stem of a verb + suffix 이) a suffix deriving a noun, adding a meaning of a person, an item, or an event. -er.
  3. a suffix deriving a noun, adding a meaning of a person or an item. -er.

Etymology 7Edit

Of native Korean origin.

SuffixEdit

—이 (-i)

  1. (after a stem of an adjective) a suffix deriving an adverb. -ly.
  2. (after repeating a single-syllable noun) a suffix deriving an adverb.
    • (dal, “a month”) ×2 + (i) → 다달이 (dadari, “month by month”)
    • (, gan, “interval”) ×2 + (i) → 간간이 (gan-gani, “at times”)

Usage notesEdit

The suffix -i is used for adjectives not ending in -hada, and the suffix -hi is implemented for that case. For example, 많다 (manta, “many”) turns into 많이 (mani, “a lot”) whereas 깔끔하다 (kkalkkeumhada, “neat”) becomes 깔끔히 (kkalkkeumhi, “neatly”). However, if -hada is suffixed after consonants k and s, -i is sometimes used rather than -hi, as in 깊숙이 (gipsugi, “deeply”) from 깊숙하다 (gipsukhada, “deep”) and 깨끗이 (kkaekkeusi, “cleanly”) from 깨끗하다 (kkaekkeuthada, “clean”), while many adjectives like 솔직하다 (soljikhada, “frank”) still take -hi. Whether to use -i or -hi depends on its pronunciation, which is very confusing even to natives.[1]

The conjugation for this suffix is similar to the infinite form, but not the same. Especially, the p-irregular adjectives (ㅂ 불규칙 용언) take 이 (i) not 위 (wi); for instance, 가깝다 (gakkapda, “near”) → 가까이 (gakkai, “nearly”).

Also, note that only a limited number of adverbs are frequently used which are formed by affixing -i or -hi.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Etymology 8Edit

Of native Korean origin.

SuffixEdit

—이 (-i)

  1. (after the stem of the sequential form of an adjective) one of the familiar style declarative endings.

Etymology 9Edit

First attested in the Beonyeok Bak Tongsa (飜譯朴通事 / 번역박통사), before 1517, as Middle Korean ᅀᅵ (zi).

Before 1517, 번역박통사 :11
ᄉᆞ이 ᄠᅮ미 ᅀᅵ십 릿 ᄯᅡ히니

NumeralEdit

(i) (hanja , )

  1. two
  2. second
Usage notesEdit
  • Used primarily with Sino-Korean count words, or in reading numbers literally. In modern Korean, numbers are almost always written in Arabic numerals.
  • (i) means “second” if it is directly put before a noun other than modern units.
    i cheungsecond floor
    du cheungtwo floors
    i timTeam 2
    du timtwo teams
SynonymsEdit
  • (dul) (native Korean)

Etymology 10Edit

Korean reading of various Chinese characters.

SyllableEdit

(i)

Extended content
  1. : two
    (eumhun reading: (du i), MC reading: (MC ȵiɪH))
  2. : by means of; thereby
    (eumhun reading: (sseo i), MC reading: (MCX))
  3. : already
    (eumhun reading: 이미 (imi i), MC reading: )
  4. : ear
    (eumhun reading: (gwi i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨX))
  5. : particle used in literary Chinese
    (eumhun reading: 말이을 (marieul i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨ))
  6. : different
    (eumhun reading: 다를 (dareul i), MC reading: (MCH))
  7. : to move; to transfer
    (eumhun reading: 옮길 (omgil i), MC reading: (MC jiᴇ))
  8. : barbarian
    (eumhun reading: 오랑캐 (orangkae i), MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
  9. : earring
    (eumhun reading: 귀고리 (gwigori i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))
  10. : that
    (eumhun reading: (jeo i), MC reading: (MC ʔiɪ))
  11. : easy
    (eumhun reading: 쉬울 (swiul i), MC reading: (MC jiᴇH, jiᴇk̚))
  12. : delay
    (eumhun reading: 늦출 (neutchul i), MC reading: (MC ɕiᴇX))
  13. : to be glad; happy
    (eumhun reading: 기쁠 (gippeul i), MC reading: (MC))
  14. : postposition particle
    (eumhun reading: (neo i), MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇX))
  15. : honorable
    (eumhun reading: 떳떳할 (tteottteothal i), MC reading: )
  16. : aunt
    (eumhun reading: 이모 (imo i), MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
  17. : injury; wound
    (eumhun reading: 상처 (sangcheo i), MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
  18. : to learn
    (eumhun reading: 익힐 (ikhil i), MC reading: (MC jiɪH))
  19. : plantain
    (eumhun reading: 질경이 (jilgyeong-i i), MC reading: (MCX))
  20. : to cut
    (eumhun reading: 베일 (beil i), MC reading: (MC jiɪ, dei))
  21. : cause
    (eumhun reading: 끼칠 (kkichil i), MC reading: (MC))
  22. : close; near
    (eumhun reading: 가까울 (gakkaul i), MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇX))
  23. : Yeot, Korean taffy
    (eumhun reading: (yeot i), MC reading: (MC))
  24. : two
    (eumhun reading: (du i), MC reading: (MC ȵiɪH))
  25. : happy
    (eumhun reading: 기쁠 (gippeul i), MC reading: (MC jɨ, hɨ))
  26. : linden tree
    (eumhun reading: 피나무 (pinamu i), MC reading: (MC jiᴇ, ɖˠiᴇX))
  27. : toughmeat
    (eumhun reading: 힘줄이질길 (himjurijilgil i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))
  28. : Woman
    (eumhun reading: 여자의자 (yeojauija i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))
  29. : preciousstone
    (eumhun reading: 옥돌 (okdol i), MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
  30. : A swallow
    (eumhun reading: 제비 (jebi i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨ))
  31. : Name of a district
    (eumhun reading: 고을 이름 (go-eul ireum i), MC reading: (MC ziᴇnH, jiᴇnH))
  32. : Second Place
    (eumhun reading: 버금 (beogeum i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨH, nʌiH))
  33. : respect
    (eumhun reading: 공경할 (gonggyeonghal i), MC reading: (MCH, jɨk̚))
  34. : a forced laugh
    (eumhun reading: 선웃음 칠 (seonuseum chil i), MC reading: (MC ʔiɪ))
  35. : You
    (eumhun reading: (neo i), MC reading: )
  36. : Black Mushroom
    (eumhun reading: 목이버섯 (mogibeoseot i), MC reading: )
  37. : runnynose
    (eumhun reading: 콧물 (konmul i), MC reading: (MC jiɪ, tʰeiH))
  38. : swagger
    (eumhun reading: 으쓱거릴 (eusseukgeoril i), MC reading: )
  39. : askew
    (eumhun reading: 비스듬할 (biseudeumhal i), MC reading: )
  40. : reach
    (eumhun reading: 미칠 (michil i), MC reading: (MC jiɪH))
  41. : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: )
  42. : bait
    (eumhun reading: 미끼 (mikki i), MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))

Etymology 11Edit

 
Korean Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ko

Sino-Korean word from .

First attested in the Bullyu dugongbu si eonhae (分類杜工部詩諺解 / 분류두공부시언해), 1481, as Middle Korean (ni).

Also attested in the Beonyeok baktongsa (飜譯朴通事 / 번역박통사), before 1517, as Middle Korean (li).

Also attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean (ni).

Also attested in the Gyechuk ilgi (癸丑日記 / 계축일기), c. 1600, as Middle Korean (ni).

Also attested in the Dongguk sinsok samgang haengsildo (東國新續三綱行實圖 / 동국신속삼강행실도), 1617, as Middle Korean (ni).

Also attested in the Samun seonghwi (三韻聲彙 / 삼운성휘), 1751, as Middle Korean (li).

Also attested in the Namhun taepyeong ga (남훈태평가 / 南薰太平歌), 1863, as Middle Korean (ni).

Also attested in the F. C. Ridel's Grammaire Coréenne, 1881, as Middle Korean (ni).

Also attested in the Dongnip sinmun (獨立新聞), 1896, as Middle Korean (ni).

Proper nounEdit

(I) (hanja )

  1. (South Korea) A surname​, the second most common surname in South Korea.
Alternative formsEdit
  • (North Korea) (ri)
Usage notesEdit
  • Historically, had been written (ni) or (ri) in Korean. The spelling suddenly changed to (i) during Japanese colonial period in 1933 when 두음 법칙 (頭音法則, dueum beopchik) was established. However, North Korea abolished this rule in 1948, claiming that there was no such rule in Joseon Dynasty era. Most commonly romanized as Lee (98.5%). Other romanizations include Yi (1%) and Rhee (0.2%) It is romanized as Li in China and Ri in North Korea.

Etymology 12Edit

Sino-Korean word from

NounEdit

(i) (hanja )

  1. (South Korea) to govern
Alternative formsEdit
  • (North Korea) (ri)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 13Edit

South Korean reading of various Chinese characters, originally (ri).

SyllableEdit

(i)

Extended content
  1. (South Korea) : village
    (eumhun reading: 마을 (ma-eul i), MC reading: (MCX))
  2. (South Korea) : ruling
    (eumhun reading: 다스릴 (daseuril i), MC reading: (MCX))
  3. (South Korea) : beneficial
    (eumhun reading: 이로울 (iroul i), MC reading: (MC liɪH))
  4. (South Korea) : pear tree
    (eumhun reading: 배나무 (baenamu i), MC reading: (MC liɪ))
  5. (South Korea) : plum tree
    (eumhun reading: 오얏나무 (oyannamu i), MC reading: (MCX))
  6. (South Korea) : petty official
    (eumhun reading: 아전 (ajeon i), MC reading: (MCH))
  7. (South Korea) : to leave
    (eumhun reading: 떠날 (tteonal i), MC reading: (MC liᴇ, liᴇH, leiH))
  8. (South Korea) : inside
    (eumhun reading: (sok i), MC reading: (MCX))
  9. (South Korea) : to trample, to step on
    (eumhun reading: 밟을 (babeul i), MC reading: (MC liɪX))
  10. (South Korea) : vulgar
    (eumhun reading: 속될 (sokdoel i), MC reading: (MCX))
  11. (South Korea) : jasmine
    (eumhun reading: 말리 (malli i), MC reading: (MC ɖˠiɪ, ɖɨ, lei))
  12. (South Korea) : glass
    (eumhun reading: 유리 (yuri i), MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
  13. (South Korea) : clever
    (eumhun reading: 똑똑할 (ttokttokhal i), MC reading: )
  14. (South Korea) : small voice
    (eumhun reading: 가는 소리 (ganeun sori i), MC reading: )
  15. (South Korea) : nautical mile
    (eumhun reading: 해리 (haeri i), MC reading: )
  16. (South Korea) : wild cat
    (eumhun reading: (sak i), MC reading: (MC))
  17. (South Korea) : diarrhea
    (eumhun reading: 설사 (seolsa i), MC reading: (MC liɪH))
  18. (South Korea) : fence
    (eumhun reading: 울타리 (ultari i), MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
  19. (South Korea) : to fall ill, to get sick
    (eumhun reading: 걸릴 (geollil i), MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
  20. (South Korea) : ashen
    (eumhun reading: 파리할 (parihal i), MC reading: (MC liuᴇ))
  21. (South Korea) : ruling
    (eumhun reading: 다스릴 (daseuril i), MC reading: (MC))
  22. (South Korea) : carp
    (eumhun reading: 잉어 (ing-eo i), MC reading: (MCX))
  23. (South Korea) : to reach
    (eumhun reading: 다다를 (dadareul i), MC reading: (MC liɪH, leiH))
  24. (South Korea) 𢻠: upright
    (eumhun reading: 바르다 (bareuda i), MC reading: 𢻠)
  25. (South Korea) : to plow
    (eumhun reading: 밭 갈 (bat gal i), MC reading: (MC liɪ))
  26. (South Korea) : to spread
    (eumhun reading: 퍼질 (peojil i), MC reading: (MC ʈʰˠiᴇ))
  27. (South Korea) : to peel
    (eumhun reading: 벗길 (beotgil i), MC reading: (MC))
  28. (South Korea) : a particle
    (eumhun reading: 어조사 (eojosa i), MC reading: )
  29. (South Korea) : widow
    (eumhun reading: 과부 (gwabu i), MC reading: (MC))
  30. (South Korea) : to reach
    (eumhun reading: 다다를 (dadareul i), MC reading: (MC liɪH))
  31. (South Korea) : clam
    (eumhun reading: 참조개 (chamjogae i), MC reading: (MC liɪ))
  32. (South Korea) : hornless dragon
    (eumhun reading: 교룡 (gyoryong i), MC reading: (MC ʈʰˠiᴇ))
  33. (South Korea) : lynx
    (eumhun reading: (sak i), MC reading: (MC))
  34. (South Korea) : to connect
    (eumhun reading: 이어질 (ieojil i), MC reading: (MC liᴇX))
  35. (South Korea) : goblin
    (eumhun reading: 도깨비 (dokkaebi i), MC reading: (MC ʈʰˠiᴇ))
  36. (South Korea) : flypaper
    (eumhun reading: 끈끈이 (kkeunkkeuni i), MC reading: (MC liᴇ, ʈʰˠiᴇ))
  37. (South Korea) : to permeate
    (eumhun reading: 스며들 (seumyeodeul i), MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
  38. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: (MCX))
  39. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: (MC liᴇ, ʈʰˠiᴇ))
  40. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: )
  41. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: )
  42. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: (MC lei))
Alternative formsEdit
  • (North Korea) (ri)
Usage notesEdit

In South Korea, the original Sino-Korean reading (ri) is used if the hanja is not part of the first syllable of a Sino-Korean compound word. The change in reading and family name from (ri) to (i) is known as 두음 법칙 (頭音法則, dueum beopchik).

Etymology 14Edit

 
(i, “teeth”).

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean (ni).

1447, 훈민정음(언해본)
齒ᄂᆞᆫ

NounEdit

(i)

  1. A tooth or teeth.
    • 없으면 잇몸으로 산다.
      I eopseumyeon inmomeuro sanda.
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      (literally, “without teeth, I would live with the gum.”)
Alternative formsEdit
Usage notesEdit
  • When referring to the specific tooth name, such as 어금이 (eogeumi, “molar”), the South Korean convention uses suffix '-ni' -니 (ni) as in 어금니 (eogeumni, “molar(s)”) while the North Korean convention uses '-ee' -이 (i) as in 어금이 (eogeumi, “molar(s)”). Meanwhile, Both North and South Korea use (i) as the meaning of tooth. It is believed that tooth (ni) has been affected by the Japanese colonial period and related with the 두음 법칙 (頭音法則, dueum beopchik). [1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cho Gyutae (December 1999), “두음법칙 표기에 대하여 [Regarding the initial law transcription]”, in Baedalmal Hakoe[1], volume 25, pages 293-310.
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 15Edit

 
(i, “louse”).

First attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean (ni).

NounEdit

(i)

  1. louse
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 16Edit

South Korean reading of various Chinese characters, originally (ni).

SyllableEdit

(i)

  1. (South Korea) : mud
    (eumhun reading: 진흙 (jinheuk i), MC reading: (MC nei, neiH))
  2. (South Korea) : Buddhist nun
    (eumhun reading: 여승 (yeoseung i), MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ))
  3. (South Korea) : overgrown
    (eumhun reading: 무성한 (museonghan i), MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ, ɳˠiɪX))
  4. (South Korea) : lots of
    (eumhun reading: 많을 (maneul i), MC reading: (MC miᴇX))
  5. (South Korea) : greasy
    (eumhun reading: 기름질 (gireumjil i), MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪH))
  6. (South Korea) : strong fragrance
    (eumhun reading: 진한 향기 이 (jinhan hyanggi i), MC reading: )
  7. (South Korea) : feel good
    (eumhun reading: 마음이 좋을 이 (ma-eumi joeul i), MC reading: )
  8. (South Korea) : whisper
    (eumhun reading: 소곤거릴 이 (sogon-georil i), MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ))
  9. (South Korea) : ashamed
    (eumhun reading: 부끄러워할 이 (bukkeureowohal i), MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ))
  10. (South Korea) : Father's Shrine
    (eumhun reading: 아버지 사당 이 (abeoji sadang i), MC reading: )
Alternative formsEdit
  • (North Korea) (ni)
Usage notesEdit

In South Korea, the original Sino-Korean reading (ni) is used if the hanja is not part of the first syllable of a Sino-Korean compound word. The change in reading and family name from (ni) to (i) is known as 두음 법칙 (頭音法則, dueum beopchik).

ReferencesEdit