U+C774, 이
HANGUL SYLLABLE I
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:d-l

[U+C773]
Hangul Syllables
[U+C775]




의 ←→ 자

Cia-CiaEdit

PrepositionEdit

(’i)

  1. the locative particle: in; at

JejuEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Sino-Korean word from . Cognate with Korean (i).

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

(i)

  1. two

Etymology 2Edit

Cognate with Korean (e).

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

(i)

  1. at
  2. to
SynonymsEdit
  • (di) (after ㅅ)
  • (e) (after ㅣ and ㄹ)
  • (ye) (after a vowel)

Etymology 3Edit

Cognate with Korean (i).

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

(i)

  1. this

See alsoEdit

  • (geu, that)
  • (jeo, that (distal))

ReferencesEdit

  • ” in Jeju's culture and language, Digital museum.

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Korean 이〮 (í, this), from Old Korean 是, 利 (*i, this).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?i
Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
McCune–Reischauer?i
Yale Romanization?i
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / 에 /

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch and also heightens the next suffixed syllable, unless it is 에.

DeterminerEdit

(i)

  1. this (proximal determiner)
    그림 있다.
    I geurimeul bon jeogi itda.
    I have seen this picture.
    (file)
    Synonym: (yo, this, diminutive)
    Coordinate terms: (geu, that, mesial), (jeo, that, distal)

PronounEdit

(i)

  1. (literary, formal or dialectal) this, this thing, this person
    뭣고? (Zen Buddhist koan, Gyeongsang dialect)I mwotgo?What is this?
    대한민국 시민으로서 납득할 없습니다.
    Daehanmin'guk simineuroseo ineun napdeukhal su eopseumnida.
    As a citizen of the Republic of Korea, this is not something I can accept.
    Synonyms: 이것 (igeot, this thing), 이거 (igeo, this thing, colloquial), (yae, this person, colloquial)
    Coordinate terms: (geu, that, mesial), (jeo, that, distal)
  2. (dialectal) here
    Synonym: 여기 (yeogi)
Usage notesEdit

In spoken Korean, the word is used only as a determiner. To say "this person", "this thing", etc., a noun must be present: 사람 (i saram, this person), (i geot, this thing), etc.

See alsoEdit
Korean demonstratives edit
Determiner 어느
Pronoun Human 이이 그이 저이
이분 그분 저분 어느 분
이자 그자 저자
Object () () 어느
이것 그것 저것 어느
이거 그거 저거 어느
Place 여기 거기 저기 어디
이곳 그곳 저곳 어느 곳
Direction 이쪽 그쪽 저쪽 어느
Time 이때 그때 접때 언제
Verb 이러다 그러다 저러다 어쩌다
이리하다 그리하다 저리하다 어찌하다
Adjective 이렇다 그렇다 저렇다 어떻다
이러하다 그러하다 저러하다 어떠하다
Adverb 이리 그리 저리 어찌
이렇게 그렇게 저렇게 어떻게
이만큼 그만큼 저만큼 얼마만큼(얼만큼)

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Korean 이〮 (í, subject marker), from Old Korean 是, 利 (*i, subject marker). John Whitman and Yuko Yanagida speculate an ultimate connection either to the demonstrative ("this") or to the bound noun ("person").[1]

Old Japanese (i, emphatic nominative particle) is believed to be a borrowing from Korean into Japanese.[1]

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?i
Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
McCune–Reischauer?i
Yale Romanization?i

ParticleEdit

(i)

  1. For non-honorific nouns ending in consonants, the nominative case particle marking it as the subject of a verb or adjective; see also Usage Notes.
    치킨 맛있다.
    I chikini masitda.
    This chicken is delicious.
    (file)
    Synonyms: (ga, for non-honorific nouns ending in vowels), 께서 (kkeseo, for honorific nouns)
  2. For nouns ending in consonants, a particle marking it as the grammatical complement of the verbal stems 되다 (doeda, “to become”) and 아니다 (anida, “to not be”).
    얼음 .
    Muri eoreumi doeeotda.
    The water became ice.
    (file)
    정상 아니다.
    Gyaeneun jeongsang'i anida.
    He is not normal.
    (file)
    Synonyms: (ga, for nouns ending in vowels), 으로 (euro, for the verb 되다 (doeda))
  3. For nouns ending in consonants, an emphatic particle used to mark the object of desire in a construction with the auxiliary verb 싶다 (sipda, to want).
    짜장면 먹고 싶다는데?
    Jyaen jjajangmyeoni meokgo sipdaneunde?
    She says she wants to eat jajangmyeon.
    (file)
    Synonym: (ga, for nouns ending in vowels)
Usage notesEdit

Korean commonly uses so-called "double subject" constructions, in which a subject-verb or subject-adjective combination is used as the predicate of another subject so that the subject marker appears twice in a single sentence. See the examples below:

아프다
soni apeuda
The hand hurts.
우리 아들 아프다
uri adeuri soni apeuda
My son's hand hurts.
(literally, “My son is hand-hurting.”)

As with all Korean particles, is often omitted.

교실 이렇게 ?
Gyosiri wae ireoke keo?
Why is the classroom so big?
교실 이렇게 ? (particle omitted)
Gyosil wae ireoke keo?
Why is the classroom so big?

However, it cannot be omitted when the subject is a new topic being introduced into the conversation, or when the subject is being specified to the exclusion of others. The particle is thus obligatory in the sentence below, where (jip, home) is to the exclusion of other things.

제일 좋다.
Jibi jeil jota.
Home is best.

Historically, was the only subject-marking particle in the Korean language, and was used for nouns ending in vowels as well. This is true for most Early Modern Korean texts up to the late nineteenth century. In the peripheral Yukjin dialect spoken in far northeastern Korea and neighboring parts of China, remains the only nominative particle used. It is the only contemporary dialect to preserve such an archaism.

See alsoEdit
  • 은/는 (eun/neun, topic marker)
  • 을/를 (eul/reul, direct object marker)

Etymology 3Edit

Korean numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → 
    Native: (dul), (du)
    Sino-Korean: (i)
    Hanja:
    Ordinal: 둘째 (duljjae)
    Number of days: 이틀 (iteul)

Sino-Korean word from , from the Middle Korean reading ᅀᅵ〯 (Yale: ), from Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪH).

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [i(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?i
Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
McCune–Reischauer?i
Yale Romanization?ī
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / 이 / 이까지

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes low pitch, and heightens the pitch of two subsequent suffixed syllables.

NumeralEdit

(i) (hanja )

  1. (Sino-Korean numeral) two
    Synonyms: (du, two, native determiner numeral), (dul, two, native nominal numeral)
Usage notesEdit

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세요 (hanaman deo juseyo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ireun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

First attested in the Hunmin jeongeum haerye (訓民正音解例 / 훈민정음해례), 1446, as Middle Korean 니〮 (Yale: ). Compounds still retain the original form.

Alternative formsEdit

  • (ni, as the second element of a compound, in South Korean orthography)

PronunciationEdit

In isolation or as the initial element of a compound:

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?i
Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
McCune–Reischauer?i
Yale Romanization?i

As the non-initial element of a compound:

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?ni
Revised Romanization (translit.)?ni
McCune–Reischauer?ni
Yale Romanization?ni
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / 에 /

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch and also heightens the next suffixed syllable, unless it is 에.

 
(i, “teeth”)

NounEdit

(i)

  1. tooth, teeth (chiefly of a human)
    아프다
    iga apeuda
    for the teeth to hurt; to have a toothache
    으면 잇몸으로 산다. (proverb)
    I eopseumyeon inmomeuro sanda.
    With no teeth, I'd live with my gum.
    Synonyms: 이빨 (ippal, tooth, of an animal or colloquially of a human), 치아(齒牙) (chia, tooth, formal, academic)
  2. the teeth of a saw or a similar jagged surface
    빠진
    i ppajin keop
    a chipped cup
    (file)
  3. (rare) mechanical joint
    Synonym: 이음 (ieum)
Usage notesEdit

In South Korea, the compounded form is written (ni) to reflect the actual pronunciation. In North Korea, it is written (i) for consistency. The pronunciation is the same in both countries except if spelling pronunciation interferes for some North Koreans.

Derived termsEdit
  • 금니 (geumni, gold teeth)
  • 덧니 (deonni, snaggleteeth)
  • 막니 (mangni, wisdom teeth (dialectal))
  • 사랑니 (sarangni, wisdom teeth)
  • 송곳니 (songgonni, canine teeth)
  • 아랫니 (araenni, lower teeth)
  • 앞니 (amni, incisor)
  • 어금니 (eogeumni, molar)
  • 윗니 (winni, upper teeth)
  • 은니 (eunni, silver teeth)
  • 이빨 (ippal, (animal) teeth)
  • 잇몸 (inmom, gums in the mouth)
  • 젖니 (jeonni, baby teeth)
  • 틀니 (teulli, dentures)
See alsoEdit
  • (chi, tooth), the hanja used in many teeth-related words

Etymology 5Edit

From Middle Korean 이〮 (í, person).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?i
Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
McCune–Reischauer?i
Yale Romanization?i

Dependent nounEdit

(i)

  1. (formal, literary or dated) person, man (in the gender-neutral sense)
    말하 없이 고요하다.
    Malhaneun i eopsi goyohada.
    It is quiet, with no man to talk.
    (file)
    저기 가는 누구?
    Jeogi ganeun iga nuguyo?
    Who is that man passing yonder?
    (file)
    Synonyms: 사람 (saram), (ja), (bun, polite)
Derived termsEdit

SuffixEdit

—이 (-i)

  1. A suffix attached to numerals, with the sense of "a group of people of that number".
    밖에 왔어.
    Duri bakke an wasseo.
    Just two people came.

Etymology 6Edit

From Middle Korean (i), of variable pitch depending on the stem being attached to. Lee Ki-Moon and S. Roberts Ramsey notes that it is "probably from the same etymological source" as the bound noun for "person".[2]

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?i
Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
McCune–Reischauer?i
Yale Romanization?i

SuffixEdit

—이 (-i)

  1. A noun-deriving suffix for certain consonant-final verb and adjective stems, used to nominalize both individual verbs and entire phrases.
    먹다 (meokda, to eat) + ‎ (-i) → ‎먹이 (meogi, feed for animals)
    벌다 (beolda, to make money) + ‎ (-i) → ‎벌이 (beori, earnings)
    감옥 살다 (gamoge salda, to live in prison) + ‎ (-i) → ‎감옥살이 (gamoksari, prison life)
  2. -er, -or; an agent noun-deriving suffix attached to certain consonant-final words, stems, and phrases.
    더듬다 (deodeumda, to grope, to stutter) + ‎ (-i) → ‎더듬이 (deodeumi, antennae, stutterer)
    멍멍 (meongmeong, woof-woof) + ‎ (-i) → ‎멍멍이 (meongmeong'i, doggy) (childish)
    절름발 (jeolleumbal, crippled leg) + ‎ (-i) → ‎절름발이 (jeolleumbari, cripple)
    걸다 (oseul geolda, to hang clothes) + ‎ (-i) → ‎옷걸이 (otgeori, hanger)
  3. (endearing) A suffix attached to consonant-final personal names; compare English -y as in Johnny. See also Usage Notes.
  4. A suffix attached to consonant-final words for animals. In many cases, the original, non-suffixed form is not used.
    거북 (geobuk, turtle) + ‎ (-i) → ‎거북이 (geobugi, turtle)
    호랑 (horang, tiger) + ‎ (-i) → ‎호랑이 (horang'i, tiger)
  5. A suffix attached to any noun to euphonically lengthen the word without changing its meaning. Now more productive in non-Seoul dialects.
    입술 (ipsul, lip) + ‎ (-i) → ‎입술이 (ipsuri, lip) (Gyeongsang dialect, Jinju)
Usage notesEdit

The suffix is retained before most particles, but lost before the vocative particle (-a):

서민 > 서민!
Seomini > seomina!
[Dear] Seomin > Hey, Seomin!
멍멍 > 멍멍!
Meongmeong'i > meongmeong'a!
doggy > Hey, doggy!

For nouns historically formed by the suffix but where the original form has fallen out of widespread use, vocative behavior varies. In general, words where the suffixed form was already dominant in Middle Korean retain the suffix because they are no longer perceived as being multimorphemic, but words where the non-suffixed form was common into Early Modern Korean drop the suffix.

기러 > 기럭! (suffix lost in vocative)
Gireogi > gireoga!
wild goose > Hey, wild goose!
> 파리 (suffix retained in vocative)
pari > pariya
fly (insect) > Hey, fly!

When used with personal names, the suffix connotes that the person is on intimate or familiar terms with the speaker, that they are social equals or inferiors of the speaker, and that the context is not formal. In Korean, referring to a person simply by their given name without a surname or title already implies intimacy, lack of social superiority, and informality. The suffix (-i) is thus almost always added when using a consonant-final given name in isolation. See the example below:

박서민이 그랬어. (the speaker and Seomin are not on intimate terms)
Bak Seomini geuraesseo.
Park Seomin said that.
서민가 그랬어. (the speaker and Seomin are on intimate terms)
Seominiga geuraesseo.
[Dear] Seomin said that.
*서민이 그랬어. (unusual)
*Seomini geuraesseo

The suffix can also be used together with a surname, in which case the association with intimacy or familiarity is weaker and there is a connotation that the speaker is looking down on the person being referred to.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

From Middle Korean 이〮 (), an allomorph of 기〮 (Yale: -kí, causative/passive-deriving suffix) formed by lenition of the initial consonant /k-/ in intervocalic environments. Beyond Middle Korean, the causative is the original meaning as attested in Old Korean, and the passive is a later development from the causative first attested in the written language some time between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries.[3][4]

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?i
Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
McCune–Reischauer?i
Yale Romanization?i

SuffixEdit

—이 (-i)

  1. A verbal suffix deriving the stems of causative verbs, attaching to verb or adjective stems which end in a vowel, an aspirate consonant, (-k), or (-l). No longer productive.
    먹다 (meokda, to eat) + ‎ (-i) → ‎먹이다 (meogida, to feed)
    높다 (nopda, to be high) + ‎ (-i) → ‎높이다 (nopida, to highten)
    나다 (nada, to exit) + ‎ (-i) → ‎내다 (naeda, to take out)
    Synonyms: (-hi), (-li), (-gi), (-u), (-gu), (-chu)
  2. A verbal suffix deriving the stems of passive verbs, mainly attaching to verb stems ending in a vowel or in an aspirate consonant. No longer productive.
    놓다 (nota, to place) + ‎ (-i) → ‎놓이다 (noida, to be placed)
    보다 (boda, to see) + ‎ (-i) → ‎보이다 (boida, to be seen)
    바꾸다 (bakkuda, to change) (transitive) + ‎ (-i) → ‎바뀌다 (bakkwida, to change, to be changed) (intransitive)
    Synonyms: (-hi), (-li), (-gi)
Usage notesEdit

Although still very common in Korean, the causative/passive suffixes are no longer productive for forming new verbs. Verbs that do not already have a morphological causative or passive must employ auxiliaries:

The causative/passive suffixes (-i), (-hi), (-li), and (-gi) all stem from the same etymon, and are fairly complementary in distribution. attaches to verb stems which end in a vowel or an aspirate consonant, and (in the case of causative verbs only) to stems ending in (-k) and some of those ending in (-l).

Etymology 8Edit

  • From Middle Korean (i, adverb-deriving suffix), from Old Korean 是, 利 (*i, adverb-deriving suffix).

    PronunciationEdit

    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?i

    SuffixEdit

    —이 (-i)

    1. -ly; an adverb-deriving suffix, attaching especially to adjectives and certain reduplicated monosyllabic nouns. No longer productive in Seoul Korean.
      길다 (gilda, to be long) + ‎ (-i) → ‎길이 (giri, for evermore)
      다르다 (dareuda, to be different) + ‎ (-i) → ‎달리 (dalli, unlike)
      슬프다 (seulpeuda, to be sad) + ‎ (-i) → ‎슬피 (seulpi, sadly, forlornly)
      간(間) (gan, interval) + ‎ (-i) → ‎간간이 (gan'gani, from time to time)
      무진장(無盡藏) (mujinjang, limitlessness) + ‎ (-i) → ‎무진찬이 (mujinchani, profusely) (Gyeongsang dialect, Namhae)
      Synonym: (ge, productive adverb-deriving suffix)
    2. A suffix attached to an existing adverb not derived from a verb, generally with a more emphatic sense. No longer productive in Seoul Korean.
      일찍 (iljjik, early) + ‎ (-i) → ‎일찍이 (iljjigi, quite early)
      더욱 (deouk, yet more) + ‎ (-i) → ‎더욱이 (deougi, yet quite more)
    Usage notesEdit

    (-ge) is the normal adverb-deriving suffix. The (-i) forms tend to have a marked or lexicalized meaning.

    In Seoul Korean, most adverbs derived by this suffix from adjectives formed with the light verb 하다 (hada) contract to (-hi), rather than *하이:

    솔직하다 (soljikhada, to be honest) + ‎ (-i) → ‎솔직히 (soljikhi, honestly)
    깔끔하다 (kkalkkeumhada, to be neat) + ‎ (-i) → ‎깔끔히 (kkalkkeumhi, neatly)

    However, some 하다 adjectives lose the consonant (-h) entirely, taking (-i) instead. In the prescriptive standard of Seoul Korean, there are two main exceptions:

    • If the non-하다 element ends in (-s), is always used.
      깨끗하다 (kkaekkeuthada, to be clean) + ‎ (-i) → ‎깨끗이 (kkaekkeusi, cleanly)
    • If the non-하다 element ends in (-k), is often used.
      굵직하다 (gukjikhada, to be stout) + ‎ (-i) → ‎굵직이 (gukjigi, stoutly)

    In practice, many Seoul speakers will uniformly use for all adverbs where the corresponding 하다 adjective remains current in the language.

    For a few adverbs, the form is prescriptively used despite being derived from non-하다 adjectives. However, most of these words have fallen out of use in spoken Korean. Note also that certain adverbs which originate as contractions of longer adverbs may use even when there is no corresponding 하다 adjective for the contraction, and that some Sino-Korean adverbs with have lost their adjectival counterpart entirely.

    None of this is the case in many of the non-standard dialects, such as Gyeongsang where 하이 (hai) is permissible.

    Etymology 9Edit

    First attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean 니〮 (Yale: ). Compounds still retain the original form.

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (ni, as the second element of a compound, in South Korean orthography)

    PronunciationEdit

    In isolation or as the initial element of a compound:

    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?i
     
    (i, “louse”)

    As the non-initial element of a compound:

    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?ni
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?ni
    McCune–Reischauer?ni
    Yale Romanization?ni
    • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / 에 /

      Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch and also heightens the next suffixed syllable, unless it is 에.

    NounEdit

    (i)

    1. louse (tiny bloodsucking insect)
    Usage notesEdit

    In South Korea, the compounded form is written (ni) to reflect the actual pronunciation. In North Korea, it is written (i) for consistency. The pronunciation is the same in both countries except if spelling pronunciation interferes for some North Koreans.

    Derived termsEdit
  • Etymology 10Edit

    Sino-Korean word from , Middle Korean reading 리〯 () and 니〯 ().

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [i(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?I
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?I
    McCune–Reischauer?I
    Yale Romanization?Ī

    Proper nounEdit

    South Korean
    Standard Language
    이(李) (i)
    North Korean
    Standard Language
    리(李) (ri)

    (I) (hanja )

    1. A surname​, the second most common Korean surname, used by roughly 7.3 million people in South Korea as of 2015.
    Usage notesEdit

    98.5% of South Koreans with this surname romanize it as "Lee".[5] North Koreans tend to romanize it as "Ri".

    Etymology 11Edit

    From Middle Korean (i).

    PronunciationEdit

    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?i

    SuffixEdit

    —이 (-i)

    1. Attached to certain ideophonic roots to derive verbs without frequentative effect.
      펄럭 (peolleok, fluttering, ideophonic root) + ‎ (-i) + ‎ (-da, to, dictionary citation suffix for verbs) → ‎펄럭이다 (peolleogida, to flutter)
    See alsoEdit
    • 거리다 (georida, with frequentative effect)
    • 대다 (daeda, with frequentative effect)

    Etymology 12Edit

    From Middle Korean ᅌᅵ (-ngì, deferential/self-humbling suffix). Gyeongsang is somewhat celebrated for being the only Koreanic variety where this ancient suffix is still quite productive.

    PronunciationEdit

    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?i

    SuffixEdit

    —이 (-i)

    1. (Early Modern or Gyeongsang) A suffix adding an intensified degree of politeness or deference.
      아부지, 잡수. (Gyeongsang dialect, Changwon)
      Abuji, tteok jom japsuiso.
      Father, have some rice cakes.

    Etymology 13Edit

    Cognate to Standard Seoul Korean (eung, yes, yeah, yep, informal affirmative interjection). The interjection grammaticalized into a particle.[6]

    PronunciationEdit

    ParticleEdit

    (i)

    1. (southern dialectal, including Gyeongsang, Gangwon, Jeolla dialect) A word-final particle denoting certitude and emotional intimacy.
      종철! 그래... 이 아부지 아무 없대. (Gyeongsang dialect, Busan)
      Jongcheora! Jal gageuraei... I abujineun amu hal mari eopdaei.
      Go on to a good place, Cheol, my son. There’s nothing more I can say.
      (This is a quote from the father of Bak Jong-cheol, a university student tortured to death by the junta in 1987, during his son's funeral. It became a slogan of the June Struggle that toppled the regime that year. The translation is from a 2018 article in The Korea Herald.)

    Etymology 14Edit

    Probably from Middle Korean 이〮 (í, polite declarative verbal ending), perhaps related to verbal endings (ge), (ne), (de).[7]

    PronunciationEdit

    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?i

    SuffixEdit

    —(으)이 (-(eu)i)

    1. (dated, archaic or dialectal) A familiar style declarative ending.
      고마우.Gomaui.Thank you.
      . 돌아 조심하.
      Nari chai. Doragal ttae josimhasige.
      It's cold today. Be cautious when you return.
      (file)

    Etymology 15Edit

    Sino-Korean word from , from the Middle Korean reading 리〯 (Yale: ), from Middle Chinese (MCX).

    Alternative formsEdit

    • () (ri) (see Usage Notes)

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [i(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?ī

    NounEdit

    South Korean
    Standard Language
    /(理) (i/ri)
    North Korean
    Standard Language
    리(理) (ri)

    (i) (hanja )

    1. (East Asian philosophy, especially Confucianism) li, the underlying ordering principle of the cosmos
      Coordinate term: 기(氣) (gi, vital force engendering the cosmos)
    Usage notesEdit

    In the case of this specific word, the (ri) pronunciation is very common even in South Korea. The reason may be to avoid homophony with other Chinese characters, given the context of East Asian philosophy where single-character Chinese terms are common.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 16Edit

    Sino-Korean word from , from Middle Chinese (MC liɪH, “profit”).

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [i(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?ī

    NounEdit

    South Korean
    Standard Language
    이(利) (i)
    North Korean
    Standard Language
    리(利) (ri)

    (i) (hanja )

    1. (possibly dated) profit, benefit
      Synonyms: 이득(利得) (ideuk), 이익(利益) (iik)
    2. (rare, dated) interest
      Synonyms: 변리(邊利) (byeolli), 이자(利子) (ija)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 17Edit

    From English e.

    PronunciationEdit

    Romanizations
    Revised Romanization?i
    Revised Romanization (translit.)?i
    McCune–Reischauer?i
    Yale Romanization?i
    • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / 에 /

      Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch and also heightens the next suffixed syllable, unless it is 에.

    NounEdit

    (i)

    1. The Korean reading of the Latin alphabet letter e.
      1. (mathematics) In particular, the Korean reading of the number that is the base of natural logarithms (approximately 2.718281828459), written e.

    Etymology 18Edit

    Proper nounEdit

    (I) (hanja )

    1. Alternative form of (I, Italy (in news headlines))

    Etymology 19Edit

    Modern Korean reading of various Chinese characters, from Middle Korean (Yale: ì), 이〯 (Yale: ǐ), ᅀᅵ (Yale: ), or ᅀᅵ〯 (Yale: ).

    SyllableEdit

    (i)

    Extended content
    1. : two
      (eumhun reading: (du i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵiɪH))
    2. : by means of; thereby
      (eumhun reading: (sseo i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    3. : already
      (eumhun reading: 이미 (imi i))
      (MC reading: (MCX, jɨH))
    4. : ear
      (eumhun reading: (gwi i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨX))
    5. : particle used in literary Chinese
      (eumhun reading: 말이을 (marieul i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨ))
    6. : different
      (eumhun reading: 다를 (dareul i))
      (MC reading: (MCH))
    7. : move; transfer
      (eumhun reading: 옮길 (omgil i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiᴇ))
    8. : barbarian
      (eumhun reading: 오랑캐 (orangkae i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
    9. : earring
      (eumhun reading: 귀고리 (gwigori i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))
    10. : that
      (eumhun reading: (jeo i))
      (MC reading: (MC ʔiɪ))
    11. : easy
      (eumhun reading: 쉬울 (swiul i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiᴇH, jiᴇk̚))
    12. : delay
      (eumhun reading: 늦출 (neutchul i))
      (MC reading: (MC ɕiᴇX))
    13. : to be glad; happy
      (eumhun reading: 기쁠 (gippeul i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    14. : you
      (eumhun reading: (neo i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇX))
    15. : honorable
      (eumhun reading: 떳떳할 (tteottteothal i))
      (MC reading: )
    16. : aunt
      (eumhun reading: 이모 (imo i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
    17. : injury; wound
      (eumhun reading: 상처 (sangcheo i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
    18. : learn
      (eumhun reading: 익힐 (ikhil i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪH))
    19. : plantain
      (eumhun reading: 질경이 (jilgyeong'i i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    20. : to cut
      (eumhun reading: 베일 (beil i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪ, dei))
    21. : cause
      (eumhun reading: 끼칠 (kkichil i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    22. : close; near
      (eumhun reading: 가까울 (gakkaul i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇX))
    23. : Yeot, Korean taffy
      (eumhun reading: (yeot i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    24. : two
      (eumhun reading: (du i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵiɪH))
    25. : happy
      (eumhun reading: 기쁠 (gippeul i))
      (MC reading: (MC jɨ, hɨ))
    26. : linden tree
      (eumhun reading: 피나무 (pinamu i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiᴇ, ɖˠiᴇX))
    27. : toughmeat
      (eumhun reading: 힘줄이질길 (himjurijilgil i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))
    28. : woman's courtesy name
      (eumhun reading: 여자의자 (yeojauija i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))
    29. : preciousstone
      (eumhun reading: 옥돌 (okdol i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪ))
    30. : swallow
      (eumhun reading: 제비 (jebi i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨ))
    31. : place name
      (eumhun reading: 고을 이름 (go'eul ireum i))
      (MC reading: (MC ziᴇnH, jiᴇnH))
    32. : second place
      (eumhun reading: 버금 (beogeum i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨH, nʌiH))
    33. : respect
      (eumhun reading: 공경할 (gonggyeonghal i))
      (MC reading: (MCH, jɨk̚))
    34. : a forced laugh
      (eumhun reading: 선웃음 칠 (seonuseum chil i))
      (MC reading: (MC ʔiɪ))
    35. : Alternative form of
      (eumhun reading: (neo i))
      (MC reading: )
    36. : black mushroom
      (eumhun reading: 목이버섯 (mogibeoseot i))
      (MC reading: )
    37. : runnynose
      (eumhun reading: 콧물 (konmul i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪ, tʰeiH))
    38. : swagger
      (eumhun reading: 으쓱거릴 (eusseukgeoril i))
      (MC reading: )
    39. : askew
      (eumhun reading: 비스듬할 (biseudeumhal i))
      (MC reading: )
    40. : reach
      (eumhun reading: 미칠 (michil i))
      (MC reading: (MC jiɪH))
    41. : Alternative form of
      (MC reading: )
    42. : bait
      (eumhun reading: 미끼 (mikki i))
      (MC reading: (MC ȵɨH))

    Etymology 20Edit

    South Korean reading of various Chinese characters in isolation or as the first element of a compound, and also the reading in most dialects in 1945, excluding Pyongan and Yukjin, where they are pronounced as (ni) in isolation or as the head of a compound. From Middle Korean (Yale: ) or 리〯 (Yale: ). When preceded by another character in a compound, they retain the original (ri) form.

    In the North Korean standard, they are always read as (ri), but this is an artificial imposition intended to standardize Sino-Korean readings, which did not reflect any major dialect's pronunciation in 1945.

    SyllableEdit

    (i)

    Extended content
    1. (South Korea) : town
      (eumhun reading: 마을 (ma'eul i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    2. (South Korea) : rule
      (eumhun reading: 다스릴 (daseuril i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    3. (South Korea) : benefit
      (eumhun reading: 이로울 (iroul i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪH))
    4. (South Korea) : pear tree
      (eumhun reading: 배나무 (baenamu i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪ))
    5. (South Korea) : plum tree
      (eumhun reading: 오얏나무 (oyannamu i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    6. (South Korea) : petty official
      (eumhun reading: 아전 (ajeon i))
      (MC reading: (MCH))
    7. (South Korea) : leave
      (eumhun reading: 떠날 (tteonal i))
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇ, liᴇH, leiH))
    8. (South Korea) : inside
      (eumhun reading: (sok i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    9. (South Korea) : trample, step on
      (eumhun reading: 밟을 (babeul i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪX))
    10. (South Korea) : vulgar
      (eumhun reading: 속될 (sokdoel i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    11. (South Korea) : jasmine
      (eumhun reading: 말리 (malli i))
      (MC reading: (MC ɖˠiɪ, ɖɨ, lei))
    12. (South Korea) : glass
      (eumhun reading: 유리 (yuri i))
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
    13. (South Korea) : clever
      (eumhun reading: 똑똑할 (ttokttokhal i))
      (MC reading: )
    14. (South Korea) : thin voice
      (eumhun reading: 가는 소리 (ganeun sori i))
      (MC reading: )
    15. (South Korea) : nautical mile
      (eumhun reading: 해리 (haeri i))
      (MC reading: )
    16. (South Korea) : wild cat
      (eumhun reading: (sak i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    17. (South Korea) : diarrhea
      (eumhun reading: 설사 (seolsa i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪH))
    18. (South Korea) : fence
      (eumhun reading: 울타리 (ultari i))
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
    19. (South Korea) : fall ill, get sick
      (eumhun reading: 걸릴 (geollil i))
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
    20. (South Korea) : ashen
      (eumhun reading: 파리할 (parihal i))
      (MC reading: (MC liuᴇ))
    21. (South Korea) : ruling
      (eumhun reading: 다스릴 (daseuril i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    22. (South Korea) : carp
      (eumhun reading: 잉어 (ing'eo i))
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    23. (South Korea) : reach
      (eumhun reading: 다다를 (dadareul i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪH, leiH))
    24. (South Korea) 𢻠: upright
      (eumhun reading: 바르다 (bareuda i))
      (MC reading: 𢻠)
    25. (South Korea) : plow
      (eumhun reading: (bat gal i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪ))
    26. (South Korea) : spread
      (eumhun reading: 퍼질 (peojil i))
      (MC reading: (MC ʈʰˠiᴇ))
    27. (South Korea) : peel
      (eumhun reading: 벗길 (beotgil i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    28. (South Korea) : a particle
      (eumhun reading: 어조사 (eojosa i))
      (MC reading: )
    29. (South Korea) : widow
      (eumhun reading: 과부 (gwabu i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    30. (South Korea) : reach
      (eumhun reading: 다다를 (dadareul i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪH))
    31. (South Korea) : clam
      (eumhun reading: 참조개 (chamjogae i))
      (MC reading: (MC liɪ))
    32. (South Korea) : hornless dragon
      (eumhun reading: 교룡 (gyoryong i))
      (MC reading: (MC ʈʰˠiᴇ))
    33. (South Korea) : lynx
      (eumhun reading: (sak i))
      (MC reading: (MC))
    34. (South Korea) : connect
      (eumhun reading: 이어질 (ieojil i))
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇX))
    35. (South Korea) : goblin
      (eumhun reading: 도깨비 (dokkaebi i))
      (MC reading: (MC ʈʰˠiᴇ))
    36. (South Korea) : flypaper
      (eumhun reading: 끈끈이 (kkeunkkeuni i))
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇ, ʈʰˠiᴇ))
    37. (South Korea) : to permeate
      (eumhun reading: 스며들 (seumyeodeul i))
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇ))
    38. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
      (MC reading: (MCX))
    39. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
      (MC reading: (MC liᴇ, ʈʰˠiᴇ))
    40. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
      (MC reading: )
    41. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
      (MC reading: )
    42. (South Korea) : Alternative form of
      (MC reading: (MC lei))

    Etymology 21Edit

    South Korean reading of various Chinese characters in isolation or as the first element of a compound, and also the reading in most dialects in 1945, excluding Pyongan and Yukjin, where they were always pronounced as (ni). From Middle Korean (Yale: ) or 니〯 (Yale: ). When preceded by another character in a compound, they retain the original (ni) form.

    In the North Korean standard, they are always read as (ni).

    SyllableEdit

    (i)

    Extended content
    1. (South Korea) : mud
      (eumhun reading: 진흙 (jinheuk i))
      (MC reading: (MC nei, neiH))
    2. (South Korea) : Buddhist nun
      (eumhun reading: 여승 (yeoseung i))
      (MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ))
    3. (South Korea) : overgrown
      (eumhun reading: 무성한 (museonghan i))
      (MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ, ɳˠiɪX))
    4. (South Korea) : abundant
      (eumhun reading: 많을 (maneul i))
      (MC reading: (MC miᴇX))
    5. (South Korea) : greasy
      (eumhun reading: 기름질 (gireumjil i))
      (MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪH))
    6. (South Korea) : strong fragrance
      (eumhun reading: 진한 향기 (jinhan hyanggi i))
      (MC reading: )
    7. (South Korea) : feel good
      (eumhun reading: 마음 좋을 (ma'eumi joeul i))
      (MC reading: )
    8. (South Korea) : whisper
      (eumhun reading: 소곤거릴 (sogon'georil i))
      (MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ))
    9. (South Korea) : ashamed
      (eumhun reading: 부끄러워할 (bukkeureowohal i))
      (MC reading: (MC ɳˠiɪ))
    10. (South Korea) : shrine for a deceased father
      (eumhun reading: 아버지 사당 (abeoji sadang i))
      (MC reading: )

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 “A Korean Grammatical Borrowing in Early Middle Japanese Kunten texts and its Relation to the Syntactic Alignment of Earlier Japanese and Korean”, in Japanese and Korean Linguistics, volume 21, 2012
    2. ^ Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 173—174
    3. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2010) Koreo-Japonica: A Re-evaluation of a Genetic Origin, University of Hawaii Press, →ISBN, page 6
    4. ^ 장윤희 (2006) , “고대국어의 파생접미사 연구 [A study of Old Korean derivational suffixes]”, in Gugyeol yeon-gu, volume 47
    5. ^ '김·이·박·최'의 영어표기를 외국인이 읽는다면? [If a foreigner were to read the romanizations of "Kim", "Lee", "Park", and "Choi"?]”, in Yonhap News Agency[1], 2017
    6. ^ 김태인 (2015) , “서남방언 담화표지 '이' 고찰 [A study of the discourse marker -i in Southwestern Korean]”, in Bang-eonhak, volume 21
    7. ^ 장윤희 (1997) , “중세국어 종결어미 '(-으)이'의 분석과 그 문법사적 의의 [Analysis of the Middle Korean sentence ender (-u)i and its significance in grammatical history]”, in Gugeohak, volume 30