EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ(-iyy). In English productive from the 19th century.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Used to form adjectives and nouns describing people of a particular city, region, or country, and the language spoken by these people.
    Iraq + ‎-i → ‎Iraqi
    Israel + ‎-i → ‎Israeli
    Pakistan + ‎-i → ‎Pakistani
    Bengal + ‎-i → ‎Bengali
    Nepal + ‎-i → ‎Nepali
    Desh + ‎-i → ‎Desi
TranslationsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix2".

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin , the plural ending of the Latin second declension, whence the plural of Italian nouns in -o and -e.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. used to indicate a plural form of some words of Latin or Italian origin, such as fungi, virtuosi or concerti

ReferencesEdit

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix1".

AfarEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i or

  1. Used to create nouns from class I verbs, denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action.

Usage notesEdit

  • Used together with the prefix t- to create feminine nouns. The stress will shift to the last syllable.
  • Used together with the prefix y- to create masculine nouns. The stress will not be on the last syllable.

ReferencesEdit

  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 118

AlbanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

EtymologyEdit

From the ending Proto-Indo-European *-osyo. cognate to Messapic -aihi.[1][2][3]. Related to Albanian i (of, the, to).

ArticleEdit

-i m

  1. masculine singular nominative suffixed definite article: the
    malësor (highlander) + ‎-i → ‎malësori (the highlander)
    mal (mountain) + ‎-i → ‎mali (the mountain)

Related termsEdit


ChuukeseEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
  2. (added to transitive verbs) him, her, it (third person singular indirect object)

Usage notesEdit

  • In Chuukese, transitive verbs in their base form already have the third person singular indirect object implied on them, although the suffix -i can be added for emphasis.

EsperantoEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Perhaps from Latin deponent verbs such as loquī (to speak).

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. verbal inflection marking the infinitive

Etymology 2Edit

Common to English e (pronounced [i]) in me, she, he, we and the Italian accusative pronouns mi, ti, vi, li, si.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. common vowel of personal pronouns: mi, ni, ci, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi, oni, ili, si.

EstonianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating instruments (tools) are used to perform that verb's action.

InflectionEdit

Or less commonly:

Derived termsEdit


FinnishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the fusion of Proto-Uralic *-j with a stem vowel. Originally allomorphic with -o.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. A nominal suffix used in eg. ukko (man)ukki (grandfather).
  2. (archaic) Used to mark the first part of a compound word, e.g. lehmä (cow)lehmi-.
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Finnic *-i, *-ik, perhaps from earlier *-j.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Derives a number of adverbs of generally lative or locative meaning, e.g. aukea- (to open)auki (open), ylä- (upper, high)yli (over).
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [i]
  • (file)

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. suffix sometimes used to create a diminutive form
    Hans + ‎-i → ‎Hansi
  2. suffix sometimes used to create a short form
    Spastiker + ‎-i → ‎Spasti

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

-i

  1. Romanization of -𐌹

GreenlandicEdit

SuffixEdit

-i (v-v?, truncative?)

  1. Intransitivizes.

Usage notesEdit

Sometimes additive after r stems.

Many verbs are intransitivized simply by changing the inflectional ending, without changing the stem; of those that do use an affix, it is not predictable which of -i, -nnig, -ller and -si are used. Also, verbs may use more than one of these, with similarly unpredictable results (e.g. errorsivoq (wash clothes) vs. erruivoq (do dishes), both from errorpaa). If a verb uses one of these affixes, the unaffixed intransitive form may be passive, reciprocal or reflexive w.r.t. the transitive form.

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit


HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Adjective-forming suffix.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (adjective-forming suffix) Added to a proper noun, noun or postposition to form an adjective.
    Amerika (America)amerikai (American)
    város (city)városi (urban)
    Freud (Freud)freudi (Freudian)
    az ablak alatt (under the window)az ablak alatti szék (the chair under the window)
Usage notesEdit
  • Final -o and (which only occur in non-Hungarian words) change to and .[4]
    Oslooslói (Oslovian)
    Malmömalmői (Malmö-based)
    Victor HugoVictor Hugó-i (Hugolian, Hugonian, Hugoesque)
  • If the suffix -i were to follow word-final -i, only one is retained (so one needs to know the original form).[5][6]
    Helsinkihelsinki (Helsinkian)
    Zamárdi (a town in Somogy County, Hungary)zamárdi (from Zamárdi, in theory, it could also derive from a non-existent *Zamárd)
  • The other word-final short vowels (a, e, u, ü) remain unchanged (just like long ones and consonants).
    Prága (Prague)prágai (Praguian)
    Goethegoethei (Goethean)
    Peruperui (Peruvian)
    Öskü (a village in Veszprém County, Hungary)ösküi (from Öskü)
  • The fact that word-final a and e remain short may carry distinction with the multiple-possession possessive form of a word that ends in a and e, e.g. klinikai (clinical) and klinikái (his/her/its clinics) or megyei (county-level) and megyéi (his/her/its counties),

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Possessive plural.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. possessive suffix for multiple possessions
    1. (with no noun for possessor) his, her, its ……-s (third-person singular; the pronoun ő (s/he) being optional for emphasis)
      kapu (gate)a kapui (his/her/its gates), az ő kapui (his/her gates)
      érme (coins)az érméi (his/her/its coins), az ő érméi (his/her coins)
    2. (with no noun for possessor, formal) your ……-s (second-person singular, grammatically resembling the third person sg.)
      kapu (gate)a kapui (your [formal] gates), az ön kapui, a maga kapui (your [formal] gates)
    3. construed with a noun or certain pronouns as the possessor: ……’s ……-s, ……-s of …… (third-person sg. or pl., depending on the noun or pronoun)
      az ember(nek a) kapuithe person’s gates
      a gyerek(nek az) érméithe child’s coins
      az emberek(nek a) kapuithe people’s gates
      a gyerekek(nek az) érméithe children’s coins
      az önök kapui, a maguk kapuiyour (plural, formal) gates
      azok(nak a) kapuithe gates of those
      ki(k)nek az érméi?whose coins?
Usage notesEdit
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -i is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-; final -e changes to -é-. The latter feature distinguishes it from the -i (adjective-forming suffix), which does not lengthen the preceding -a/-e.
    -ai is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ei is added to some front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jai is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jei is added to some front-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    • If the possessed noun is in the plural and the possessor is expressed in English with a possessive pronoun only (rather than a noun), e.g. “their toys” (as opposed to “the children’s toys”), the -ik/-aik/-eik/-jaik/-jeik suffixes are required in Hungarian.

Etymology 3Edit

Personal suffix.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the definite third-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood).
    kér (to request)kéri (he/she asks him/her or for that thing, he/she is asking him/her or for that thing)
Usage notesEdit
  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants in the table below.

Etymology 4Edit

Diminutive suffix.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to nouns, mostly used by the younger generation or in informal conversations.
    fagylaltfagyi (ice cream)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Matzinger 2015, pp. 62–66
  2. ^ Ismajli 2015, pp. 65–68.
  3. ^ Matzinger, Joachim (2017). "The Lexicon of Albanian". In Klein, Jared; Joseph, Brian; Fritz, Matthias (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. 3. Walter de Gruyter.
  4. ^ Section 216 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  5. ^ Section 173 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  6. ^ Section 215 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN

IcelandicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄, cognate with Gothic -𐌴𐌹 (-ei).

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. a nominal suffix, forming abstract nouns

Derived termsEdit


IdoEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Italian -i, Russian (-i). Also from English -i, used with Latin and Italian borrowings.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -s; marks the plural form of nouns, by replacing the -o ending
    libro (book) + ‎-i → ‎libri (books)

IndonesianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Malay -i. Cognate of colloquial Indonesian -in.

SuffixEdit

-i (active imperative -i, active indicative meng- -i, active jussive/optative -ilah, non-accidental passive di- -i, accidental passive ter- -i)

  1. verbal suffix for manipulate, complete, or place the object from a noun.
  2. transitive verbal suffix for causation in surface of the object from a adjective.
  3. transitive verbal suffix for doing activity to the object from a transitive verb.
  4. transitive locative imperative verbal suffix from a noun:
    1. to apply or give [base] to the object.
      Hormati orang tua!honour/respect parent!
    2. to remove [base] from the object.
      kuliti(de)skin, peel
  5. transitive adverbial imperative verbal suffix from a noun: to act as/be [base] with reference to object
    Sutradarai film ini!Direct this movie! (literally, “Become the producer of this film!”)

Etymology 2Edit

From Malay -i, from Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ(-iyy).

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. adjectives suffix (with the meaning “related to ...”)

Alternative formsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


ItalianEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Used with a stem to form the second-person singular present of regular -are, -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take "isc"
  2. Used with a stem to form the second-person imperative of -ere verbs
  3. Used with a stem to form the first-, second- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -are verbs
  4. Used with a stem to form the third-person singular imperative of -are verbs

LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

  1. nominative/vocative masculine plural of -us
  2. genitive masculine/neuter singular of -us
  3. Used for the first person present perfect active singular indicative form of any regular verb.

NounEdit

  1. dative/ablative singular of -ēs

LeponticEdit

SuffixEdit

-i (-i)

  1. Romanization of -𐌉

Lower SorbianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -y (after “hard” consonants)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. suffix creating an adjective from a noun, denoting ‘of or pertaining to’

Derived termsEdit


MakasarEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-i, from Proto-Austronesian *-i.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. suffix forming transitive verbs

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ia.

PronounEdit

-i (absolutive enclitic)

  1. he, him, she, it, they, them (third person singular and plural)

See alsoEdit


MalayEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. locative, repetitive, or exhaustive
    Sayangi Kuala Lumpur.Love Kuala Lumpur.
    Renangi kolam itu.Swim that pool.
  2. (before a person) added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
    Emak menghadiahi adik sebuah basikal.Mother gives the brother a bicycle.

SynonymsEdit

  • (before an object) -kan

Derived termsEdit

Category Malay words suffixed with -i not found

MalteseEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic ـيِّ(-yyi).

SuffixEdit

-i (feminine -ija, plural -in)

  1. a derivational suffix, chiefly creating adjectives from nouns
Usage notesEdit
  • Note that Romance adjectives in -i are treated differently and do not inflect.
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Sicilian -i. Though -i is not used as a plural ending in Arabic, it was integrated fairly easily as a large number of broken plurals happen to end in this vowel, compare tieqatwieqi, etc.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. a common plural suffix
    1. used in nouns and adjectives in -u
      numru (number)numri (numbers)
      illużorju (illusory)illużorji
    2. used in some nouns in -a, chiefly ones of Romance origin
      frawla (strawberry)frawli (strawberries)
      qawsalla (rainbow)qawsalli (rainbows)
    3. used in some nouns and adjectives in a consonant, chiefly ones of Romance origin
      frisk (fresh)friski
Usage notesEdit

See alsoEdit


Middle EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Alternative form of -y.

Etymology 2Edit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Alternative form of -yf

NamuyiEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Used to give the prospective aspect to verbs

Derived termsEdit


NormanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (Jersey) A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.

Derived termsEdit


Northern SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Samic *-jē. Cognate with Finnish -ja.

SuffixEdit

-i (with odd-syllable stems -eaddji)

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When attached to verbs in -ut, the suffix becomes -u.

InflectionEdit
Even i-stem, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -i
-ẹ
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -it
Accusative -i -iid
Genitive -i
-ẹ
-iid
Illative -ái -iide
Locative -is -iin
Comitative -iin -iiguin
Essive -in
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -án -áme -ámet
2nd person -át -áde -ádet
3rd person -is -iska -iset
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë. Cognate with Finnish -va.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
    geađgi (stone) + ‎-i → ‎geađgái (stony)
    vuodja (fat) + ‎-i → ‎vuddjii (rich in fat)
InflectionEdit
Odd, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -ja
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -jat
Accusative -ja -jiid
Genitive -ja -jiid
Illative -jii -jiidda
Locative -jis -jiin
Comitative -jiin -jiiguin
Essive -jin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -jan -jeamẹ -jeamẹt
2nd person -jat -jeattẹ -jeattẹt
3rd person -jis -jeaskkạ -jeasẹt
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel. Thus, the resulting word is essentially identical to the illative singular form. The noun declines as a contracted stem, with the inflectional stem lacking the -i.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. The ending of the illative singular case.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix changes to the form -s- (for even-syllable stems) or -sa- (for odd-syllable stems).


Norwegian NynorskEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form past participle of strong verbs.
  2. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form singular definite form for strong feminine nouns.
  3. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form plural definite form for neuter nouns.
  4. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form feminine singular indefinite form for many adjectives.
  5. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form neuter singular indefinite form for many adjectives.

OjibweEdit

FinalEdit

-i

  1. be such a number, such an amount

Derived termsEdit

FinalEdit

-i

  1. occurs after initials to form animate intransitive verbs (vai)

Derived termsEdit

FinalEdit

-i

  1. occurs in inanimate intransitive verbs (vii)

Derived termsEdit

FinalEdit

-i

  1. occurs in some uninflected words, including preverbs

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


Old High GermanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

SuffixEdit

  1. productive suffix used to form abstract nouns from adjectives
    manag (many) + ‎-i → ‎menigī, managī (crowd, amount)
    tiuf (deep) + ‎-i → ‎tiufī (depth)
    finstar (dark) + ‎-i → ‎finstrī, finstarī (darkness)
    hōh (high) + ‎-i → ‎hōhī (height)
    lang (long) + ‎-i → ‎lengī (length)
    breit (broad) + ‎-i → ‎breitī (breadth)
DeclensionEdit

Female n-declension

Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-īniz. Cognate to Gothic -𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 (-eins).

SuffixEdit

  1. non-productive suffix used to form action nouns from weak verbs
    toufen (to baptise) + ‎-i → ‎toufī (baptism)
    wellen (to choose) + ‎-i → ‎welī (choice)
Usage notesEdit

In Old High German, this suffix is neither frequent nor productive. Many weak verbs have action nouns with -unga instead.

DeclensionEdit

Female n-declension


Old IrishEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i (suffixed pronoun)

  1. him
  2. it (object pronoun)

Usage notesEdit

This suffix is used only after third-person singular forms. After 1st person singular forms in -(e)a, 1st person plural forms in -mi, and 3rd person plural forms in -(a)it, the suffix -it is sometimes used.

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


Old NorseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄, cognate with Gothic -𐌴𐌹 (-ei).

SuffixEdit

-i f

  1. -th. Forms abstract nouns from adjectives which represent 'the state, quality or measure of' the adjective.

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ô, cognate with Gothic -𐌰 (-a).

SuffixEdit

-i m

  1. Forms agent nouns, often from the zero-grade form of the base.
    Synonym: -ari

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit


PhaluraEdit

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Feminine agreement suffix

ReferencesEdit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Feminine agreement suffix

ReferencesEdit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[3], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

PolishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.


PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i m

  1. Forms masculine adjectives meaning "belonging to", especially for animals
    koza + ‎-i → ‎kozi
    kot + ‎-i → ‎koci
    pies + ‎-i → ‎psi
  2. Forms masculine adjectives derived from prepoisitional phrases
    noga + ‎-i → ‎beznogi

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit



PortugueseEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. forms the 2nd-person plural affirmative imperative of 3rd conjugation verbs; appended to the stem
    Parti em paz.
    Go in peace.

Usage notesEdit

Like every other 2nd-person plural conjugation, its use is archaic.

Related termsEdit

  • -ei (affirmative imperative for 2nd-conjugation verbs)
  • -ai (affirmative imperative for 1st-conjugation verbs and negative imperative for 3rd-conjugation verbs)

RomanianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin (second-declension plural ending)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (plural) -s
Usage notesEdit
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for masculine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases, regardless of singular form. The suffix may cause phonetic changes or vowel deletion (or both):
  • lup + ‎-i → ‎lupi
  • tată + ‎-i → ‎tați
  • fiu + ‎-i → ‎fii
  • frate + ‎-i → ‎frați

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin illī, nominative masculine plural of ille.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i m

  1. (definite article) the (masculine plural, nominative and accusative)
Usage notesEdit

This form of the definite article is used for masculine plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases (as attached to the indefinite plural, which always ends in a vowel):

The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.

Related termsEdit
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 3Edit

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish and French -ir, Italian -ire, etc.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Usage notesEdit
  • Most verbs with infinitives in -i are marked by the once-inchoative infix -esc- in many parts of their conjugation, as well as in various derived words; two such verbs are vorbi (to say) and iubi (to love).
  • A sizable group of verbs have infinitives in -i but do not use the infix -esc-, and are otherwise fairly regular; these include, among others, the common verb dormi (sleep), simți (feel), auzi (hear).
  • There is a variant form, , derived from the same Latin source.

See alsoEdit

Derived termsEdit


Skolt SamiEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Samic *-jē.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
InflectionEdit

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
InflectionEdit

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Usage notesEdit

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel.

Derived termsEdit

SwedishEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -y; when added to one noun, creates a new one that indicates the use or activity of the first. See also -eri.

Derived termsEdit


TagalogEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (Batangas) Imperative suffix, usually equals to "-in/-an mo" in Standard Tagalog and other dialects
    Buksi yung pinto!
    Open the door!

TurkishEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession.
    ev (house) + ‎-i → ‎evi (his/her/its house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-i → ‎ofisi (his/her/its office)
  2. Accusative suffix.
    gelin + ‎-i → ‎gelini

Usage notesEdit

  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "", "-u" and "" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    kız + ‎-i → ‎kızı (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-i → ‎yolu (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
    yüz + ‎-i → ‎yüzü (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-i → ‎sebebi
    çekiç + ‎-i → ‎çekici
    senet + ‎-i → ‎senedi
    çiçek + ‎-i → ‎çiçeği
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "y" for the accusative case suffix and "s" for the possessive suffix
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kediyi
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kedisi
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it is appended to a proper noun.
    Zafer + ‎-i → ‎Zafer'i
    Ali + ‎-i → ‎Ali'yi / Ali'si

UzbekEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as uning (its) placed before a noun. Also used to form definite accusative forms of nouns.
    Bu kitobi.
    This is its book.

VepsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -er; forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notesEdit

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

InflectionEdit
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Adjectival/participal use of the agent noun suffix above.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -ing; forms the present active participle of verbs.
Usage notesEdit

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

InflectionEdit
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived termsEdit
Category Veps present active participles not found

VolapükEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. A morpheme used to mark the accusative singular of a word (such as a noun or pronoun).
    Dog beiton mani. / Mani beiton dog
    The dog bites the man.
    Mot löfof omi. / Omi löfof mot. (a.s., hicili, soni, u higaaporn).
    The mother loves him. (e.g. the (male) child, son, or (male) lovebird).

WelshEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Cognate with Cornish -i and Irish .

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Pluralisation suffix
    plwyf (parish) + ‎-i → ‎plwyfi (parishes)
    maen (stone) + ‎-i → ‎meini (stones)
    toiled (toilet) + ‎-i → ‎toiledi (toilets)
    Synonyms: -aid, -aint, -au, -ed, -edd, -en, -iadau, -iaid, -iau, -ion, -od, -oedd, -on, -ydd, -yr, -ys

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Welsh -im, from Proto-Brythonic *-iμ.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms verbnouns from verb stems.
    Synonyms: -o, -u
Usage notesEdit

This suffix is mostly used for verbs where the stem ends in the consonant w (though for some such verbs, such as cadw, the verbnoun is given by the stem without a suffix) or the vowel in the last syllable is o, oe, or sometimes a.[1]

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. forming abstract nouns, -ness, -ment
    diog (lazy) + ‎-i → ‎diogi (laziness)
    truan (poor, wretched) + ‎-i → ‎trueni (pity, shame)
    tlawd (poor) + ‎-i → ‎tlodi (poverty)
Usage notesEdit

-i causes i-affection of internal vowels.

Etymology 4Edit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. used to form pet names
    Wil + ‎-i → ‎Wili
    Siân + ‎-i → ‎Siani
    mam (mother, mum) + ‎-i → ‎mami (mummy)

Etymology 5Edit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the second-person singular present indicative/future
  2. (colloquial) verb suffix for the second-person singular future
Usage notesEdit

In the literary language, -i causes i-affection of internal vowels, for example, ‎canu (to sing) + ‎-i → ‎ceni (you sing, you will sing).

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 202 v.

ZuluEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Bantu *-ì.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Usage notesEdit

The suffix replaces the -a inherent in the verb stem.

Derived termsEdit