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EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ (-iyy). In English productive from the 19th century.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Used to form adjectives and nouns describing people of a particular city, region, or country, and the language spoken by these people.
    IraqIraqi, IsraelIsraeli, PakistanPakistani, BengalBengali, NepalNepali, DeshDesi, HyderabadHyderabadi
See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix2".

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin , the plural ending of the Latin second declension, whence the plural of Italian nouns in -o and -e.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. used to indicate a plural form of some words of Latin or Italian origin, such as fungi, virtuosi or concerti

ReferencesEdit

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix1".

ChuukeseEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
  2. (added to transitive verbs) him, her, it (third person singular indirect object)

Usage notesEdit

  • In Chuukese, transitive verbs in their base form already have the third person singular indirect object implied on them, although the suffix -i can be added for emphasis.

EsperantoEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Perhaps from Latin deponent verbs such as loquī (to speak).

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. verbal inflection marking the infinitive

Etymology 2Edit

Common to English e (pronounced [i]) in me, she, he, we and the Italian accusative pronouns mi, ti, vi, li, si.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. common vowel of personal pronouns: mi, ni, ci, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi, oni, ili, si.

EstonianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

SuffixEdit

-i (genitive -me, partitive -it)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating instruments (tools) are used to perform that verb's action.

InflectionEdit

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived termsEdit



FinnishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the fusion of Proto-Uralic *-j with a stem vowel. Originally allomorphic with -o.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. A nominal suffix used in eg. syle- (fathom)syli (bosom), ukko (man)ukki (grandfather).
  2. (archaic) Used to mark the first part of a compound word, e.g. lehmä (cow)lehmi-.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Derives a number of adverbs of generally lative or locative meaning, e.g. aukea- (to open)auki (open), ylä- (upper, high)yli (over).

See alsoEdit


GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. suffix sometimes used to create a diminutive form
    Hans + ‎-i → ‎Hansi
  2. suffix sometimes used to create a short form
    Schiedsrichter + ‎-i → ‎Schiri
    Spastiker + ‎-i → ‎Spasti

Derived termsEdit


See alsoEdit


HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Adjective suffix.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (adjective suffix) Added to a proper noun or a noun to form an adjective.
    Amerika (America)amerikai (American)
    város (city)városi (urban)
    Freud (Freud)freudi (Freudian)
Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

Possessive plural.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (possessive suffix) his/her/its ...-s (third-person singular, multiple possessions)
    kapu (gate)a kapui (his/her/its gates)
    palota (palace)a palotái (his/her/its palaces)
    érme (coin)az érméi (his/her/its coins)
  2. (possessive suffix) your ... -s (second-person singular and plural formal, multiple possessions)
    a maga kapui, az ön kapuiyour (singular, formal) gates
    a maguk kapui, az önök kapuiyour (plural, formal) gates
Usage notesEdit
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -i is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -ai is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ei is added to some front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jai is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jei is added to some front vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i

Etymology 3Edit

Personal suffix.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the third-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, definite conjugation).
    kér (to request)kéri (he/she asks something, he/she is asking something)
Usage notesEdit
  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants in the table below.

Etymology 4Edit

Diminutive suffix.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to nouns, mostly used by the younger generation or in informal conversations.
    fagylaltfagyi (ice cream)

See alsoEdit


IdoEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Italian -i, Russian (-i). Also from English -i, used with Latin and Italian borrowings.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -s (Marks the plural form of nouns, by replacing the -o ending.)
    libro (book) + ‎-i → ‎libri (books)

ItalianEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Used with a stem to form the second-person singular present of regular -are, -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take "isc"
  2. Used with a stem to form the second-person imperative of -ere verbs
  3. Used with a stem to form the first-, second- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -are verbs
  4. Used with a stem to form the third-person singular imperative of -are verbs

LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

  1. nominative and vocative masculine plural of -us
  2. genitive masculine and neuter singular of -us
  3. Used for the first person present perfect active singular indicative form of any regular verb.

NounEdit

  1. dative and ablative singular of -ēs

LeponticEdit

SuffixEdit

-i (-i)

  1. Romanization of -𐌉

Lower SorbianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -y (after “hard” consonants)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. suffix creating an adjective from a noun, denoting ‘of or pertaining to’

Derived termsEdit



MalayEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. locative, repetitive, or exhaustive
    Sayangi Kuala Lumpur.
    Love Kuala Lumpur.
    Renangi kolam itu.
    Swim that pool.

NormanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (Jersey) A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.

Derived termsEdit



Northern SamiEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Samic *-jē. Cognate with Finnish -ja.

SuffixEdit

-i (with odd-syllable stems -eaddji)

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When attached to verbs in -ut, the suffix becomes -u.

InflectionEdit
Even, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -i
-e
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -it
Accusative -i -iid
Genitive -i
-e
-iid
Illative -ái -iide
Locative -is -iin
Comitative -iin -iiguin
Essive -in
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -án -áme -ámet
2nd person -át -áde -ádet
3rd person -is -iska -iset
Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë. Cognate with Finnish -va.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
    geađgi (stone) + ‎-i → ‎geađgái (stony)
    vuodja (fat) + ‎-i → ‎vuddjii (rich in fat)
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel. Thus, the resulting word is essentially identical to the illative singular form. The noun declines as a contracted stem, with the inflectional stem lacking the -i.

Derived termsEdit


Etymology 3Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. The ending of the illative singular case.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix changes to the form -s- (for even-syllable stems) or -sa- (for odd-syllable stems).


Old High GermanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

SuffixEdit

  1. productive suffix used to form abstract nouns from adjectives
    menigī, managī (crowd, amount) from manag (many)
    tiufī (depth) from tiuf (deep)
    finstrī, finstarī (darkness) from finstar (dark)
    hōhī (height) from hōh (high)
    lengī (length) from lang (long)
    breitī (breadth) from breit (broad)
DeclensionEdit

Female n-declension

DescendantsEdit
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e
Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-īniz. Cognate to Gothic -𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 (-eins).

SuffixEdit

  1. non-productive suffix used to form action nouns from weak verbs
    toufī (baptism) from toufen (to baptise)
    welī (choice) from wellen (to choose)
DeclensionEdit

Female n-declension

Usage notesEdit

In Old High German, this suffix is neither frequent nor productive. Many weak verbs have action nouns with -unga instead.


Old IrishEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i (suffixed pronoun)

  1. him
  2. it (object pronoun)

Usage notesEdit

This suffix is used only after third-person singular forms. After 1st person singular forms in -(e)a, 1st person plural forms in -mi, and 3rd person plural forms in -(a)it, the suffix -it is sometimes used.

See alsoEdit

Derived termsEdit



RomanianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin (second-declension ending)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (plural) -s
Usage notesEdit
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for masculine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases, regardless of singular form. The suffix may cause phonetic changes or vowel deletion (or both):
  • lup + ‎-i → ‎lupi
  • tată + ‎-i → ‎tați
  • fiu + ‎-i → ‎fii
  • frate + ‎-i → ‎frăți

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin illī, nominative masculine plural of ille.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i m

  1. (definite article) the (masculine plural, nominative and accusative)
Usage notesEdit

This form of the definite article is used for masculine plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases (as attached to the indefinite plural, which always ends in a vowel):

The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.

Related termsEdit
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 3Edit

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish and French -ir, Italian -ire, etc.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Usage notesEdit
  • Most verbs with infinitives in -i are marked by the once-inchoative infix -esc- in many parts of their conjugation, as well as in various derived words; two such verbs are vorbi (to say) and to love.
  • A sizable group of verbs have infinitives in -i but do not use the infix -esc-, and are otherwise fairly regular; these include, among others, the common verb dormi (sleep), simți (feel), auzi (hear).
  • There is a variant form, , derived from the same Latin source.
See alsoEdit

SwedishEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -y; when added to one noun, creates a new one that indicates the use or activity of the first. See also -eri.

Derived termsEdit



TagalogEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. (Batangas) imperative suffix, usually equals to "-in/-an mo" in Standard Tagalog and other dialects
    Buksi yung pinto!
    Open the door!

TurkishEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession.
    ev (house) + ‎-i → ‎evi (his/her/its house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-i → ‎ofisi (his/her/its office)
  2. Accusative suffix.
    gelin + ‎-i → ‎gelini

Usage notesEdit

  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "", "-u" and "" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    kız + ‎-i → ‎kızı (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-i → ‎yolu (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
    yüz + ‎-i → ‎yüzü (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-i → ‎sebebi
    çekiç + ‎-i → ‎çekici
    senet + ‎-i → ‎senedi
    çiçek + ‎-i → ‎çiçeği
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "y" for the accusative case suffix and "s" for the possessive suffix
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kediyi
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kedisi
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it is appended to a proper noun.
    Zafer + ‎-i → ‎Zafer'i
    Ali + ‎-i → ‎Ali'yi / Ali'si

UzbekEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as uning (its) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobi.
    This is its book.

VepsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -er; forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notesEdit

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

InflectionEdit
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative  ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I  ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I  ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

Adjectival/participal use of the agent noun suffix above.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. -ing; forms the present active participle of verbs.
Usage notesEdit

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

InflectionEdit
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative  ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I  ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I  ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived termsEdit
Category Veps present active participles not found

VolapükEdit

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. A morpheme used to mark the accusative singular of a word (such as a noun or pronoun).
    Dog beiton mani. / Mani beiton dog
    The dog bites the man.
    Mot löfof omi. / Omi löfof mot. (a.s., hicili, soni, u higaaporn).
    The mother loves him. (e.g. the (male) child, son, or (male) lovebird).

WelshEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Cognate with Irish .

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Pluralisation suffix
    toiled (toilet)toiledi (toilets)
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Welsh -im, from Proto-Brythonic *-iμ.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms verbal nouns.
See alsoEdit

Derived termsEdit



ZuluEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Nguni *-i, from Proto-Bantu *-ì.

SuffixEdit

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Usage notesEdit

The suffix replaces the -a inherent in the verb stem.

Derived termsEdit