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Appendix:Gothic pronunciation

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents the reconstruction of Gothic pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.

See Gothic language Β§ Phonology at Wikipedia for a more thorough look at the sounds of Gothic.

Consonants
IPA Examples Approximation in Eng-
lish or another modern
European language
/b/ πŒ±πŒ°πŒ²πŒΌπƒ (bagms) ball
[β][1] 𐌷𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 (haban) Spanish haber
/d/ πŒ³πŒ°πŒ²πƒ (dags) done
[ð][2] 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰 (þiuda) this
/f/[3] π†πŒ°πŒ³πŒ°π‚ (fadar) fuss
/Ι‘/ πŒ²πŒ°πŒΉπ‚πŒ³πŒ° (gairda) guest
/Ι‘(Ι‘)Κ·/ πƒπŒ°πŒ²πŒ²π…πƒ (saggws),
π„π‚πŒΉπŒ²πŒ²π…πƒ (triggws)
guano
[Ι£][4] πŒ°πŒΏπŒ²π‰ (augō) Dutch dagen
/h/ 𐌷𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 (haban) hut
/j/ 𐌾𐌰 (ja) yard
/ɟɟ/ 𐌹𐌳𐌳𐌾𐌰 (iddja) duty (RP)[5]
/k/ πŒΊπŒ°πŒ»πŒ±π‰ (kalbō) cold
/kΚ·/ πŒ΅πŒ°πŒΉπŒ½π‰πŒ½ (qainōn) quake
/l/ 𐌻𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌴𐌹 (laggei) lamp
/m/ 𐌼𐌰𐌲𐌰𐌽 (magan) must
/n/ πŒ½πŒ°πŒ³π‚πƒ (nadrs) not
[Ε‹][6] 𐌸𐌰𐌲𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (ΓΎagkjan),
πƒπŒ°πŒ²πŒ²π…πƒ (saggws)
long
/p/ π€πŒ°πŒΉπŒ³πŒ° (paida) puck
/r/ π‚πŒ°πŒ²πŒΉπŒ½ (ragin) Italian regno
/s/ πƒπŒ°πŒ²πŒ²π…πƒ (saggws) soon
/t/ π„πŒ°πŒ²πŒ» (tagl) tall
/θ/ 𐌸𐌰𐌲𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (þagkjan) think
/w/ π…πŒ°πŒ²πŒ²πƒ (waggs) window
/ʍ/ πˆπŒ°πŒ³π‚πŒ΄ (Ζ•adrΔ“) white (Scottish)
/x/[7] π‡π‚πŒΉπƒπ„πŒΏπƒ (xristus),
πŒ³πŒ°πŒ²πƒ (dags)
loch (Scottish)
/z/ 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌢𐌰 (maiza) zoo
Stress
/ˈ/ πŒ½πŒ°πŒΌπ‰ (namō) (/ˈnamoː/) as in number /ˈnʌmbɚ/
Vowels
IPA Examples Approximation in Eng-
lish or another modern
European language
Short
/a/ π„πŒ°πŒ²πŒ» (tagl) bra (but shorter);
pot (American)
/Ι›/ π„πŒ°πŒΉπŒ·πŒΏπŒ½ (taihun)[8] bet
/i/ π„πŒΉπŒ²πŒΏπƒ (tigus) beet (but shorter)
/Ι”/ πŒ³πŒ°πŒΏπŒ·π„πŒ°π‚ (dauhtar)[9] boss
/u/ π„πŒΏπŒ²πŒ²π‰ (tuggō) boot (but shorter)
/y/[10] πƒπ…πŒ½πŒ°πŒ²π‰πŒ²πŒ΄ (swnagōgΔ“) French Luc
Long
/aː/ πŒ±π‚πŒ°πŒ·π„πŒ° (brāhta) bra
/eː/ π„πŒ΄πŒΊπŒ°πŒ½ (tΔ“kan) day (but monophthongal)
/ɛː/ π„πŒ°πŒΉπŒ½πƒ (tains)[11] bed (but longer)
/iː/ 𐌱𐌴𐌹𐌳𐌰𐌽 (beidan) bee
/oː/ πŒ±π‰πŒΊπŒ° (bōka) toe (but monophthongal)
/ɔː/ π„πŒ°πŒΏπŒΎπŒ°πŒ½ (taujan)[12] paw
/uː/ πŒ±π‚πŒΏπŒΊπƒ (brΕ«ks) food
Diphthong
/iu̯/ 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌱𐌹 (þiubi) be with
Notes
  1. ^ An allophone of /b/ between vowels; devoiced to /f/ before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  2. ^ An allophone of /d/ between vowels; devoiced to /ΞΈ/ before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  3. ^ Possibly actually bilabial /ΙΈ/
  4. ^ An allophone of /Ι‘/ after vowels; devoiced to /x/ before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  5. ^ But articulated further back on the hard palate, and long
  6. ^ An allophone of /n/ before /k(Κ·)/ or /Ι‘(Κ·)/
  7. ^ Phonemic only in Greek loanwords; usually allophone of /Ι‘/ after vowels and before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  8. ^ Also transliterated aΓ­
  9. ^ Also transliterated aΓΊ
  10. ^ Only in Greek loanwords
  11. ^ Also transliterated Γ‘i
  12. ^ Also transliterated Γ‘u