Translingual edit

Symbol edit

ja

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Japanese.

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Borrowed from Afrikaans ja (yes), from Dutch ja (yes). More at yea.

Alternative forms edit

Adverb edit

ja (not comparable)

  1. (chiefly South Africa, informal) Yes.
    • 1940, Penguin Parade (issue 7, page 25)
      Ja, he had been fooled and it was not pleasant for a man to go home and tell his wife that he been verneuked.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From the Revised Romanization of Korean (ja).

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

ja (plural jas or ja)

  1. (Korean units of measure) Synonym of Korean foot: a traditional unit of length equivalent to about 30.3 cm.

Anagrams edit

Afrikaans edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch ja.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /jaː/
  • (file)

Adverb edit

ja

  1. yes

Descendants edit

  • English: ja
  • Portuguese: , , ya

Alemannic German edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old High German ja, , from Proto-Germanic *ja. Cognate with German ja, Dutch ja, English yea, Swedish ja.

Adverb edit

ja

  1. (Uri) yes

References edit

Assan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Yeniseian *axʷ (I). Compare Kott ai (I), Pumpokol ad (I), and Arin aj.

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. I (first-person singular subjective)

Synonyms edit

Related terms edit

Atong (India) edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Garo ja (moon, month).

Noun edit

ja

  1. month
  2. moon

References edit

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin iam.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. already, (in negative sentences) any more
  2. now, immediately, at once

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • “ja” in Diccionari català-valencià-balear, Antoni Maria Alcover and Francesc de Borja Moll, 1962.

Central Melanau edit

Central Melanau cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : ja

Alternative forms edit

Numeral edit

ja

  1. one

Synonyms edit

Cimbrian edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German ja, from Old High German ja, , from Proto-West Germanic *jā, from Proto-Germanic *ja. Cognate with German ja, English yea.

Particle edit

ja

  1. (Sette Comuni) yes

References edit

  • “ja” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Cypriot Arabic edit

Root
j-y-y
2 terms

Etymology edit

From Arabicجَاءَ(jāʔa).

Verb edit

ja I (present pijí)

  1. to come, to arrive at
  2. to derive from
  3. to turn out

References edit

  • Borg, Alexander (2004) A Comparative Glossary of Cypriot Maronite Arabic (Arabic–English) (Handbook of Oriental Studies; I.70), Leiden and Boston: Brill, pages 192

Danish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse (yes).

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes

Antonyms edit

Related terms edit

Noun edit

ja n (singular definite jaet, plural indefinite jaer)

  1. yes

Inflection edit

Dimasa edit

Noun edit

  1. foot

Derived terms edit

Dutch edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Dutch ja, from Old Dutch *jā, from Proto-Germanic *ja.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. yes
    Wil je met ons meegaan?Ja, graag!
    Would you like to come with us? — Yes, I'd love to!

Synonyms edit

Antonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Noun edit

ja m or n (plural ja's, diminutive jaatje n)

  1. yes
    Een ja kan je krijgen, een nee heb je al.
    A yes you can get, a no you already have.
    Het begon met een ja...
    It began with a yes...

Synonyms edit

Antonyms edit

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes!
    Synonym: yes
    "Ja!" riep hij luid toen er een doelpunt viel.
    Yes! he screamed loudly when they scored a goal.
  2. (Suriname, informal) A casual greeting acknowledging the presence of a person; hey, hi, what's up
  3. (Suriname, informal) Used as a request for someone to repeat something not heard or understood clearly; say again, what's that

Descendants edit

  • Afrikaans: ja
  • Indonesian: ya
  • Berbice Creole Dutch: ja
  • Jersey Dutch:
  • Negerhollands: ja, ju
  • Skepi Creole Dutch: ja
  • Saramaccan: jahái, jaái

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from German ja. Compare Polish jo, Yiddishיאָ(yo), English yea. Related to jes.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. indeed
    • 2015, Kalle Kniivilä, “Sopiro al Sovetio [Yearning for the Soviet Union]”, in Krimeo estas nia [Crimea is ours]:
      Sed la bona soveta tempo neniam revenos. Ĝi ja neniam ekzistis.
      But the good Soviet times will never return, because they never existed.
      (literally, “But the good Soviet time will never come back. It indeed never existed.”)

Related terms edit

  • do (therefore, indeed, so)
  • ekzakte (exactly)
  • fakte (factually)
  • ĝuste (just, right, exactly)
  • jese (yes, exactly)
  • reale (really, actually)
  • vere (truly)

Estonian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *ja, from Proto-Germanic *jahw (and); compare Gothic 𐌾𐌰𐌷 (jah), Old High German ja, joh.

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. and

Synonyms edit

Faroese edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse , from Proto-Germanic *ja.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. yes

Antonyms edit

Related terms edit

Noun edit

ja n (genitive singular jas, plural ja)

  1. yes

Declension edit

Declension of ja
n3 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative ja jaið ja jaini
accusative ja jaið ja jaini
dative jai jainum jaum jaunum
genitive jas jasins jaa jaanna

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *ja (compare Estonian ja, Ingrian ja, Livonian ja, Votic ja), borrowed from Proto-Germanic *jahw (and) (compare Gothic 𐌾𐌰𐌷 (jah), Old High German ja, joh).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. (coordinating) and
    Siellä oli poikia ja tyttöjä.There were boys and girls there.
    Menin kotiin ja aloin soittaa pianoa.I went home and started playing the piano.
    Iltapalaksi on leipää, juustoa, kinkkua, tomaattia ja maitoa.For supper we have bread, cheese, ham, tomato and milk.
    Mies juoksee ja juoksee.The man runs and runs.
    Ja sitten alkoi sataa.And then it started raining.
    Mene ja tiedä.Go figure. (literally, “Go and know.”)
    viisi ja puolifive and a half
    ensimmäisen ja viimeisen kerranfor the first and the last time

Usage notes edit

  • On the differences between ja and sekä:
    • ja can be used more widely than sekä. As an example, sekä may not be used to join two independent clauses.
    • sekä has a nuance of the things being more separate than with ja. If both words are used, ja ties things closer together than sekä.
      mansikka- ja vadelmahillo sekä muut hedelmäsäilykkeetstrawberry and raspberry jam as well as other fruit preserves
      Vaahdota voi sekä sokeri ja sekoita joukkoon kuivat aineet.Cream the butter and sugar, and mix in the dry ingredients.
    • In legal language, ja and sekä are distinguished more clearly. sekä is considered "stronger" than ja. For example, an attribute specified before a list will apply to every item with ja, but not with sekä.
      paineella tyhjennettävät ja täytettävät säiliötcontainers that can be filled and emptied under pressure = containers that are both filled and emptied under pressure
      paineella tyhjennettävät sekä täytettävät säiliötcontainers that can be filled and emptied under pressure = containers that are emptied under pressure, and which can be filled either under pressure or not

Synonyms edit

  • sekä (see the above usage notes)

Adverb edit

ja

  1. (dialectal) also, as well
    Synonyms: -kin, myös

Noun edit

ja

  1. AND (logic gate or connector)

Declension edit

Rarely inflected; if inflection is necessary, it is used as a first component in a compound, such as JA-portti ("AND gate").

Inflection of ja (Kotus type 21/rosé, no gradation)
nominative ja jat
genitive jan jaiden
jaitten
partitive jata jaita
illative jahan jaihin
singular plural
nominative ja jat
accusative nom. ja jat
gen. jan
genitive jan jaiden
jaitten
partitive jata jaita
inessive jassa jaissa
elative jasta jaista
illative jahan jaihin
adessive jalla jailla
ablative jalta jailta
allative jalle jaille
essive jana jaina
translative jaksi jaiksi
abessive jatta jaitta
instructive jain
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of ja (Kotus type 21/rosé, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative jani jani
accusative nom. jani jani
gen. jani
genitive jani jaideni
jaitteni
partitive jatani jaitani
inessive jassani jaissani
elative jastani jaistani
illative jahani jaihini
adessive jallani jaillani
ablative jaltani jailtani
allative jalleni jailleni
essive janani jainani
translative jakseni jaikseni
abessive jattani jaittani
instructive
comitative jaineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative jasi jasi
accusative nom. jasi jasi
gen. jasi
genitive jasi jaidesi
jaittesi
partitive jatasi jaitasi
inessive jassasi jaissasi
elative jastasi jaistasi
illative jahasi jaihisi
adessive jallasi jaillasi
ablative jaltasi jailtasi
allative jallesi jaillesi
essive janasi jainasi
translative jaksesi jaiksesi
abessive jattasi jaittasi
instructive
comitative jainesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative jamme jamme
accusative nom. jamme jamme
gen. jamme
genitive jamme jaidemme
jaittemme
partitive jatamme jaitamme
inessive jassamme jaissamme
elative jastamme jaistamme
illative jahamme jaihimme
adessive jallamme jaillamme
ablative jaltamme jailtamme
allative jallemme jaillemme
essive janamme jainamme
translative jaksemme jaiksemme
abessive jattamme jaittamme
instructive
comitative jainemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative janne janne
accusative nom. janne janne
gen. janne
genitive janne jaidenne
jaittenne
partitive jatanne jaitanne
inessive jassanne jaissanne
elative jastanne jaistanne
illative jahanne jaihinne
adessive jallanne jaillanne
ablative jaltanne jailtanne
allative jallenne jaillenne
essive jananne jainanne
translative jaksenne jaiksenne
abessive jattanne jaittanne
instructive
comitative jainenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative jansa jansa
accusative nom. jansa jansa
gen. jansa
genitive jansa jaidensa
jaittensa
partitive jataan
jatansa
jaitaan
jaitansa
inessive jassaan
jassansa
jaissaan
jaissansa
elative jastaan
jastansa
jaistaan
jaistansa
illative jahansa jaihinsa
adessive jallaan
jallansa
jaillaan
jaillansa
ablative jaltaan
jaltansa
jailtaan
jailtansa
allative jalleen
jallensa
jailleen
jaillensa
essive janaan
janansa
jainaan
jainansa
translative jakseen
jaksensa
jaikseen
jaiksensa
abessive jattaan
jattansa
jaittaan
jaittansa
instructive
comitative jaineen
jainensa

References edit

  1. ^ Häkkinen, Kaisa (2004) Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja [Modern Finnish Etymological Dictionary] (in Finnish), Juva: WSOY, →ISBN

Further reading edit

Garo edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun edit

ja

  1. month

Synonyms edit

German edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German ja, from Old High German ja, jā (yes), from Proto-Germanic *ja (yes), from Proto-Indo-European *yē (already). Cognate with Bavarian (yes), Dutch ja (yes), English yea (yes, yea), Spanish ya (already), and Latin iam (already). More at yes.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [jäː] (Standard, overall more common)
  • IPA(key): [ʝäː] (standard, overall less common)
  • (file)
  • (file)
  • IPA(key): [jɑː] (Austrian German)
  • IPA(key): [jɒ~jɔ] (Austrian German, common in casual speech as an influence of the Austro-Bavarian language)
  • Rhymes: -aː
  • Homophone: Jahr (according to a widespread pronunciation of this word)

Adverb edit

ja

  1. yes; yea, yeah, aye
    Synonym: jawohl
    Willst du das? Ja.Do you want that? Yes.
    Aber ja!Yes, of course!
  2. (intensifier) obviously; certainly; of course; really; just; as you know; as is generally known (indicates and emphasises that one is expressing a known fact)
    Synonyms: doch, bekanntlich
    Es kann ja nicht immer so bleiben.It obviously cannot always remain so.
    Der Peter war ja gestern krank.Peter was sick yesterday, as you know.

Usage notes edit

  • (yes): Ja is used to indicate agreement with a positive statement. To contradict a negative statement (where English would use “yes”), doch is used instead.
  • (obviously): Ja means roughly the same as English obviously or as you know, but given its shortness it is used much more frequently. In colloquial German, ja is used in most statements of facts already known to the one addressed.

Antonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes
    Synonym: jawohl
    Antonym: nein

Further reading edit

  • ja” in Duden online
  • ja” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Gothic edit

Romanization edit

ja

  1. Romanization of 𐌾𐌰

Guerrero Amuzgo edit

Adjective edit

ja

  1. heavy

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. I

Gutnish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse ek. Compare Swedish jag.

Alternative forms edit

  • jag (Fårö and Lau dialects)

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. I (first-person singular pronoun)
Inflection edit
inflection of "ja"
subject ja
object mi
possessive min, mein, mitt, meine

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse .

Adverb edit

ja

  1. yes
Usage notes edit

Uncertain or stalling answer; jo is used for yes-no questions

Related terms edit
  • (used for yes-no questions) jo, (Lau dialect)

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes

References edit

  • "ja" in Gutamålgildes Årdliste
  • "ja in Gustavson, H. (red.). 1972-1986. Ordbok över Laumålet på Gotland. Uppsala: AB Lundequistska Bokhandeln.

Hausa edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /(d)ʒáː/
    • (Standard Kano Hausa) IPA(key): [d͡ʒáː]

Adjective edit

(feminine , plural jājā̀yē)

  1. red

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈjɒ], [ˈjɒː] (the long pronunciation is used in case of great surprise)
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -jɒ

Interjection edit

ja

  1. (informal) yep (indicates agreement, approval, or understanding)
    Synonyms: aha, ühüm, jaja
    Jössz holnap a meccsre? – Ja.
    “Are you coming to the game tomorrow?” “Yep.”
  2. (informal) oh (indicates understanding something finally after a misunderstanding or confusion)
    Este nem jár a vonat. – Ja, hát akkor menjünk busszal!
    “No train is leaving in the evening.” “Oh, well then let's travel by bus!”
    Ezt nem is Miki küldte! – Ja, lehet, hogy én értettem félre.
    “This was not sent by Miki!” “Oh, then I must have misunderstood it.”

Further reading edit

  • (yep, oh): ja in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (indeed, actually, as a matter of fact): ja in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Ido edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from French déjàItalian giàSpanish ya, from Latin iam, replacing Esperanto jam which is cognate. Decision no. 987, Progreso VI.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. already
    Lu ja dormeskis.
    He/she has already fallen asleep.

Derived terms edit

  • ne ja (not yet; not even)

Related terms edit

References edit

  • Progreso III (in Ido), 1910–1911, pages 557, 691
  • Progreso VI (in Ido), 1913–1914, page 164

Ingrian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *ja. Cognates include Finnish ja and Estonian ja.

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. and
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 25:
      Kiko ja Miko jo uijuut.
      Kiko and Miko are already swimming.
Synonyms edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. also, too
    • 1936, D. I. Efimov, Lukukirja: Inkeroisia alkușkouluja vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 3:
      On meil hyvät mașinistat -
      paravozat ollaa ja.
      We have good engine drivers -
      we have steam locomotives, too.
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Ultimately from a Germanic language, from Proto-Germanic *ja (compare Swedish ja and German ja). Cognates include Finnish jaa and Estonian jah, jaa.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

ja

  1. yes
    • 1936, V. I. Junus, N. A. Iljin, Inkeroisin keelen oppikirja alkuşkouluja vart (toine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 42:
      Onok se maa teil?
      - Ja, ono.
      Is that your land?
      Yes, it is.
Synonyms edit
Antonyms edit

References edit

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 99
  • Olga I. Konkova; Nikita A. Dyachkov (2014) Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[2], →ISBN, page 79

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

ja

  1. Rōmaji transcription of じゃ
  2. Rōmaji transcription of ジャ
  3. Rōmaji transcription of ぢゃ
  4. Rōmaji transcription of ヂャ

Latvian edit

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. if
  2. in case

Lithuanian edit

Pronoun edit

ja f

  1. third-person singular instrumental of ji

Lower Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *(j)a, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronoun edit

ja sg

  1. I

Declension edit

Lule Sami edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *jahw (and).

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. and

Further reading edit

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[3], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Maltese edit

Etymology edit

From Arabicيَا().

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /jaː/
  • Usually unstressed and then automatically shortened to /ja/.

Particle edit

ja

  1. vocative particle; oh!; you!
    Ja Mulejja!Oh my Lord!
    Ja iblah!You idiot!

Usage notes edit

  • While not obligatory even in standard Arabic, the vocative particle is predominantly omitted in Maltese. It does remain a common word, however, especially when equivalent to English “you”.

Mbati edit

Noun edit

ja

  1. drought, famine

References edit

  • LePage, Sarah Gloria (2020) "The phonology of Mbati"[4], University of North Dakota

North Frisian edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. (Sylt and Mooring) they

Synonyms edit

  • djo (Heligolandic)
  • jo (Amrum and Fering)
  • (Halligen, Hoorning and Wiedingharde)

Northern Sami edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *jahw (and).

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. and

Further reading edit

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[5], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Northern Sotho edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-dɪ́a.

Verb edit

ja

  1. to eat

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse .

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. yes

Antonyms edit

Related terms edit

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes

Noun edit

ja n (definite singular jaet, indefinite plural ja or jaer, definite plural jaa or jaene)

  1. yes

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse .

Adverb edit

ja

  1. yes

Antonyms edit

Related terms edit

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes

Noun edit

ja n (definite singular jaet, indefinite plural ja, definite plural jaa)

  1. yes

References edit

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Latin iam.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ja

  1. already
  2. as soon as possible
  3. quickly
  4. (with "ne") never

References edit

  • Godefroy, Frédéric, Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (1881) (ja)

Old Polish edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /jaː/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /jɒ/

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *(j)azъ. First attested in the 13th century.

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. first-person pronoun; I
Declension edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Interjection edit

ja

  1. (reduplicated) The meaning of this term is uncertain. Possibilities include:
    1. the name of some idol

References edit

Pennsylvania German edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Compare German ja, Dutch ja, Swedish ja.

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes, yeah

Pite Sami edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *jahw (and).

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. and

Further reading edit

  • ja in Bidumsáme Báhkogirrje (Pite Sami word list)
  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[6], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Pnar edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Khasian *ʤaː. Cognate with Khasi ja.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ja

  1. cooked rice

Polish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish ja. Doublet of ego.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. first-person pronoun; I
    Ja chcę mieć przyjaciół.I want to have friends.

Usage notes edit

Mute forms ("mię", "mi") cannot be used in accented positions in the sentence. "Mię" is considered dated in standard Polish, but can still be heard commonly in some dialects or in colloquial speech.

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

noun
particle

See also edit

Trivia edit

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), ja is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 16 times in scientific texts, 2 times in news, 84 times in essays, 892 times in fiction, and 2034 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 3028 times, making it the 15th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References edit

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “ja”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 159

Further reading edit

  • ja in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • ja in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • ja”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish], 2010-2023
  • JA”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 04.09.2019
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814), “ja”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “ja”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1902), “ja”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 2, Warsaw, page 119

Portuguese edit

Adverb edit

ja (not comparable)

  1. Obsolete spelling of

Russenorsk edit

Etymology edit

From Russian я (ja). May also be a Russianized form of Danish jeg or Swedish jag.

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. I (pronoun)

Synonyms edit

References edit

  • Ingvild Broch; Ernst H. Jahr (1984) Russenorsk: Et pidginspråk i Norge [Russenorsk: A pidgin language in Norway], 2 edition, Oslo: Novus Forlag

Rwanda-Rundi edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

Verb edit

-ja (infinitive kuja, perfective -gīye)

  1. (Kirundi) to go to

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *(j)azъ, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ēź-, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronunciation edit

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Pronoun edit

(Cyrillic spelling ја̑)

  1. I
    Ja sam učio.I have studied.
Declension edit

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from German ja.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

(Cyrillic spelling ја̏)

  1. (colloquial, regional) yes, yeah

Etymology 3 edit

Interjection edit

ja

  1. Archaic form of jao.
    • 1891, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Srpske narodne pjesme:
      Ja Ivane, mio pobratime!
      O woe, Ivan, dear blood-brother!

Silesian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from German ja.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈja/
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Syllabification: ja

Particle edit

ja

  1. yes
    Antonym: niy

Further reading edit

  • ja in silling.org

Slovak edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *(j)a, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. I (first person singular)

Usage notes edit

  • Following prepositions, ma and mi are replaced by mňa and mne respectively.

Declension edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  • ja”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Anagrams edit

Slovene edit

Etymology 1 edit

Borrowed from German ja.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

  1. (informal) yes
    Synonym:
    Antonym:

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. (dialectal) Alternative form of jȁz
    Ja sem Slovenec.I am Slovenian.

Further reading edit

  • ja”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Sotho edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-dɪ́a.

Verb edit

ja

  1. to eat

Spanish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈxa/ [ˈxa]
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Syllabification: ja

Interjection edit

ja

  1. representation of laughter, ha
    Also used repeatedly: jaja, jajaja

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Swahili edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-jìja. Compare Zulu -za.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

-ja (infinitive kuja)

  1. to come
  2. going to (followed by an infinitive, future, or subjunctive verb)

Conjugation edit

Conjugation of -ja
Positive present -nakuja
Subjunctive -je
Negative -ji
Imperative singular njoo
Infinitives
Positive kuja
Negative kutokuja
Imperatives
Singular njoo
Plural njooni
Tensed forms
Habitual huja
Positive past positive subject concord + -likuja
Negative past negative subject concord + -kuja
Positive present (positive subject concord + -nakuja)
Singular Plural
1st person ninakuja/nakuja tunakuja
2nd person unakuja mnakuja
3rd person m-wa(I/II) anakuja wanakuja
other classes positive subject concord + -nakuja
Negative present (negative subject concord + -ji)
Singular Plural
1st person siji hatuji
2nd person huji hamji
3rd person m-wa(I/II) haji hawaji
other classes negative subject concord + -ji
Positive future positive subject concord + -takuja
Negative future negative subject concord + -takuja
Positive subjunctive (positive subject concord + -je)
Singular Plural
1st person nije tuje
2nd person uje mje
3rd person m-wa(I/II) aje waje
other classes positive subject concord + -je
Negative subjunctive positive subject concord + -sije
Positive present conditional positive subject concord + -ngekuja
Negative present conditional positive subject concord + -singekuja
Positive past conditional positive subject concord + -ngalikuja
Negative past conditional positive subject concord + -singalikuja
Gnomic (positive subject concord + -aja)
Singular Plural
1st person naja twaja
2nd person waja mwaja
3rd person m-wa(I/II) aja waja
m-mi(III/IV) waja yaja
ji-ma(V/VI) laja yaja
ki-vi(VII/VIII) chaja vyaja
n(IX/X) yaja zaja
u(XI) waja see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) kwaja
pa(XVI) paja
mu(XVIII) mwaja
Perfect positive subject concord + -mekuja
"Already" positive subject concord + -meshakuja
"Not yet" negative subject concord + -jaja
"If/When" positive subject concord + -kija
"If not" positive subject concord + -sipokuja
Consecutive kaja / positive subject concord + -kaja
Consecutive subjunctive positive subject concord + -kaje
Object concord
Relative forms
General positive (positive subject concord + -ja- + relative marker)
Singular Plural
m-wa(I/II) -jaye -jao
m-mi(III/IV) -jao -jayo
ji-ma(V/VI) -jalo -jayo
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -jacho -javyo
n(IX/X) -jayo -jazo
u(XI) -jao see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -jako
pa(XVI) -japo
mu(XVIII) -jamo
Other forms (subject concord + tense marker + relative marker + -kuja)
Singular Plural
m-wa(I/II) -yekuja -okuja
m-mi(III/IV) -okuja -yokuja
ji-ma(V/VI) -lokuja -yokuja
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -chokuja -vyokuja
n(IX/X) -yokuja -zokuja
u(XI) -okuja see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -kokuja
pa(XVI) -pokuja
mu(XVIII) -mokuja
Some forms not commonly seen in modern Standard Swahili are absent from the table. See Appendix:Swahili verbs for more information.

Derived terms edit

Swedish edit

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Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse , from Proto-Germanic *ja.

Pronunciation edit

Interjection
  • IPA(key): /jɑː/, (Scania) /jaː/, /ja/
  • (file)
Noun
  • IPA(key): /jɑː/, (Scania) /jaː/

Adverb edit

ja (not comparable)

  1. yes
    Synonyms: japp, jo
    Antonym: nej
Related terms edit

Noun edit

ja n

  1. a yes, an aye; a positive answer or vote
Declension edit
Declension of ja 
Uncountable
Indefinite Definite
Nominative ja jaet
Genitive jas jaets

Etymology 2 edit

See jag.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. (colloquial, text messaging) Pronunciation spelling of jag.

Anagrams edit

Tswana edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-dɪ́a.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

go ja (past jelê)

  1. to eat

Re jele bogobe maabane - We ate bogobe yesterday.

Tz'utujil edit

Alternative forms edit

Article edit

ja

  1. the

Upper Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *(j)a, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ja

  1. I

Declension edit

Further reading edit

  • ja” in Soblex

Votic edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *ja.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Luutsa, Liivtšülä) IPA(key): /ˈjɑ/, [ˈʝɑ]
  • Rhymes:
  • Hyphenation: ja

Conjunction edit

ja

  1. and
    Synonym: i

References edit

  • Hallap, V.; Adler, E.; Grünberg, S.; Leppik, M. (2012), “ja”, in Vadja keele sõnaraamat [A dictionary of the Votic language], 2nd edition, Tallinn

West Frisian edit

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

ja

  1. yes

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • ja”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

West Makian edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ja

  1. (intransitive) to cry

Conjugation edit

Conjugation of ja (action verb)
singular plural
inclusive exclusive
1st person taja maja aja
2nd person naja faja
3rd person inanimate ija daja
animate
imperative naja, ja faja, ja

References edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[7], Pacific linguistics

Ye'kwana edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Cariban *pa (grandchild).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ja (obligatorily possessed; possessed jadü)

  1. grandchild
  2. sibling’s grandchild; grandnephew or grandniece

References edit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “ja”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon
  • Hall, Katherine Lee (1988), “ha:dü”, in The morphosyntax of discourse in De'kwana Carib, volume I and II, Saint Louis, Missouri: PhD Thesis, Washington University, page 289
  • Hall, Katherine (2007), “hādɨ”, in Mary Ritchie Key & Bernard Comrie, editors, The Intercontinental Dictionary Series[8], Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, published 2021
  • Monterrey, Nalúa Rosa Silva (2012) Hombres de curiara y mujeres de conuco. Etnografía de los indigenas Ye’kwana de Venezuela, Ciudad Bolívar: Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana, page 62–65, 71, 75

Yoruba edit

Etymology 1 edit

Cognate with Igala (to fight)

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (intransitive, reciprocal) to fight, to wrestle, to struggle
  2. (intransitive) to occur, to take place, to break out (as in a war or disease)
    Synonym:
    ogún War broke out
Usage notes edit
  • ja before a direct object
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (intransitive, transitive) to snap, to break off, to break loose
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (intransitive) to occur, to take place, to begin suddenly (to break out)
    Synonym:
    gudugbẹ̀ẹ́ Calamity has broken out
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (intransitive) to ring out like a bell
    etí rẹ̀ ń His ears were ringing out
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (heading, intransitive) to fall off (from some height)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 6 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. to shine brightly
    Synonyms: , bẹ, ha
    òṣùpá já tòò bí ọ̀sánThe moon shined brightly like the afternoon (sun)

Etymology 7 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. to become aware, to come to full realization
Derived terms edit

Etymology 8 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (intransitive) to become punctured
    àpò rẹ̀ẹ́ His pocket has become punctured

Etymology 9 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (intransitive) to become saturated or oversaturated with something; to become too much of something
    iyọ̀ ọ́ ọbẹ̀ yìíSalt has saturated this stew
Derived terms edit

Etymology 10 edit

Likely cognate with Igala (to harvest)

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (transitive) to pluck off (usually referring to fruit or leaves)
    Synonym: wọ́
Derived terms edit

Zialo edit

Noun edit

ja

  1. water

References edit

  • Kirill Vladimirovich Babaev, Zialo: the newly-discovered Mande language of Guinea (2010), page 213

Zou edit

Verb edit

ja

  1. hear

References edit