Appendix:Proto-Dravidian reconstructions

The following Proto-Dravidian reconstructions are from Krishnamurti (2003) and Southworth (2005).

Krishnamurti (2003)Edit

Proto-Dravidian reconstructions from Krishnamurti (2003) are as follows.[1]

AbbreviationsEdit

Sub-entries that are given under lemmas [main entries] (which are entries directly above that are not marked by →)
V vowel
Vb main verb
v.t. transitive verb
v.i. intransitive verb
SD Southern Dravidian
SD I Southern Dravidian (branch I)
SD II Southern Dravidian (branch II)
CD Central Dravidian
ND Northern Dravidian

LexiconEdit

Proto-Dravidian Glosses and notes cf.
*akam ‘inside’
→ *aka-ppaṭu ‘to be included’
*akaẓ-tt-ay ‘moat’
*akka- ‘elder sister’
*añc- ‘to fear’
→ *añc-al, añc-c(-am) n. ‘fear’ SD I, Te.
*aṭ-a-nk- ‘be compressed, hidden’
→ *aṭ-a-nkk- v.t. ‘to control, hide’ PSD
*aṭ-a-ppay ‘betel pouch’
*aṭ-ay-kkāy ‘areca nut’ SD I
*aṭ-V ‘foot, bottom, base’ SD I
→ *aṭ-Vk- ‘foot, bottom, base’ SD II, CD
*aṭṭu ‘pancake’
*aṇ-ṭṭ- ‘to adhere, stick’
*aṇ ṇa- ‘elder brother’
*aṯ-V- ‘to know’
*aṯṯ-/*āṯṯ- ‘that place, manner’
*a-tu 3neu sg SD I
*atta- ‘maternal/paternal aunt’
*a-n(V)k- ~ *ā-n(V)k/-t- ~ *-tt- ‘that place/time/much/many/manner’
*a-nV ‘there, then’
*a-nṯu ‘that day, then’ SD I
*appa- ‘father’
*app-am ‘rice cake’
*ap-pōẓ ‘that time, then’
*amp-ali ‘porridge’ SD II
*ampu ‘arrow’
*amp-i ‘boat’
*a-mpV ‘there’ PSD
*amm-a ‘mother’
*ayy-a ‘father’
*ar-ac/-aḷ pipal tree’
*ar-i ‘a kind of tax’
*ar-Vṇṭṭi ‘banana, plantain’ SD II
*al- ‘to be not’ SD I
*al-a-nk- ‘to shake’
*a-l(l)V ‘that place’
*aw-anṯu ‘he, that man’ 3m sg (nom)
→ *aawan- ‘he, that man’ obl.
*aw-aḷ 3f sg SD I
*aww-a ‘mother, grandmother’
*aḷ-amp- ‘mushroom’
*aḷ-V-kk- ‘to sacrifice’
*aẓ-i- ‘to perish’
→ *aẓ-i-ntt- past transitive
→ *aẓ-i-mpp non-past transitive
*aH-/*ā ‘that’ (distal)
→ *a-tu ‘she/it’ (hum f and non-hum)
→ *aw-anṯu ‘he’ (hum m)
→ *aw-ay ‘they’ (non-men/non-hum)
→ *aw-ar ‘men/persons’ (hum)
→ *aw-aḷ ‘she’ (hum f)
*aHn- (> a(y)n- > e(y)n- > i (y)n-, ān-) ‘to say’; quotative marker
*ā- ‘to be, become’
→ *ā-k- ‘to be’
→ *ā-kk- ‘to make’
→ *ān-/*an- ‘to be’
→ *ā-p- ‘to become’
→ *ā-pp- ‘to make’
*āṭ-u ‘to play, dance’; n. āṭṭ-u (< *āṭ + t-)
*āṯ- ‘to become cool, to dry up’
*āṯ(ṯ)- 1pl incl nom
*ānt-ay ‘owl’ SD I
*ā(m/*n)- ‘cow’
*āy ‘mother’
*ār-āy ‘to investigate’
→ *ār-āy-cci ‘research’ PSD I
*ār/*ar-ak- millet
*āl banyan tree’
*āḷ ‘man/woman’
*iṭ-u- (iṭ-ṭ-) ‘to put, place’
*iṯ-ay-cci ‘meat’
*in- adj./n. ‘sweet’
*īnṯu ‘today, now’
*ir- ‘to be’ (copular verb) SD I
→ *ir-u-wu ‘a place to be’ SD II
*ir-u-ppay mahua tree’, Bassia longifolia
*ir-Vl/*w ‘liver’ SD I
*il ‘house’
*iẓi- ‘to descend’
→ *iẓi-nt- past intransitive
→ *iẓi-ntt- past transitive
→ *iẓi-(m)p- non-past intransitive
→ *iẓi-(m)pp- non-past transitive
*iH-/*ī ‘this’ (proximal)
→ *ītu ‘this thing/woman’
→ *iw-anṯu ‘this man’
→ *iw-ay ‘these things/women’
→ *iw-ar ‘these men/persons’
→ *iw-aḷ ‘this woman’
‘fly’
*īr/*ir-V ‘two’
→ *ir-aṇ-ṭu ‘two’ (3n-m pl)
→ *iru-war ‘two persons’
*īẓam ‘toddy’
→ *īẓa-wanṯ- ‘toddy-tapper’ SD I
*ukir ‘finger nail, toe-nail’ SD I
→ *gōr/*kōr ‘finger nail, toe-nail’ SD II, CD, Br.
→ *or-kk- ‘finger nail, toe-nail’ Kur–Malt
*uc-V- ‘to breathe’
→ *uc-Vr ‘to breathe’
*uṭ-ump- iguana
*uṇ- ‘to drink’
*uram-kkal ‘grinding stone, pestle’
*ur-ay ‘to rub’
*ula-kk-V ‘pestle’
*uḷ- ‘to be, to have’
→ *uṇṭ-u (< *uḷ-nt-) ‘is, are’
*uḷḷ-am ‘mind, the inside one’ see uḷu
*lḷi ‘onion’
*uẓ-untu ‘black gram’
*uẓ-u-pp- ‘stag, deer’
*uẓ-uw- ‘tiger’ SD II
*uẓ-V- ‘to plough’
→ *uẓ-a-tti ‘farming’
*uHṇ-/*ūṇ- (past uṇ-ṭ-, uṇ-ṭṭ-) ‘to eat, drink’
→ *ūṭṭ- (< *uHṇ-tt-) ‘to give to eat or drink’
*uH/*ū ‘yonder’
*ū/*uy ‘meat’
*ūr ‘habitation, village, town’
*eṇ ‘to count’
*eṇ adj. ‘eight’
→ *eṇ-ṭṭu ‘eight’ (3n-m pl)
*eṯ-ay-anṯu ‘chief, king’
*eṯ-V- ‘red’ PSD II
*eṯ-V-y ‘prawn’
*enk- ‘to remain, be left over’
→ *enk-al ‘left over food’ (palatalization in SD I + Konda as eñc-)
*en-ṯ- ‘sun’
*er-utu ‘ox’
*er-umV- buffalo
*el-ay ‘leaf’ PSD
*el-i ‘rat’
*el, en-ṯu ‘sunshine, sun’
*el-V-mp/-nk ‘bone’
*elli ‘tomorrow’ (Tu., Te.?, Br.)
*ell-V ‘all’
*eḷ-V- ‘young, tender’
*eḷ-V-ñc- black bear
*eẓ-V adj. ‘seven’
→ *ēẓ ‘seven’ (3n-m pl)
*ēk-/*eHk- ‘to gin cotton’
*ēṯu ‘ox, bull’
*ēl ‘mind, reason, knowledge’
*ēl-V- cardamom
*ēẓ/*eẓ-V- ‘to spin’
*o- ‘to be suitable’
→ o-kk-, o-pp-, o-mp-, o-ww- incorporated tense-transitivity suffixes
→ *okku- ‘to be together’
→ *okk-al ‘relatives’
*ok-Vr, kō-r ‘finger/toe nail’
*okk- ‘one’ CD, Tel.
*oṭ-ay ‘to break’ PSD
*oṭ-al ‘body’ PSD
*oṭ-unku ‘to be restrained’
*oṭ-Vkk- chameleon
*oṯ-a-nku ‘to sleep’ PSD
*on-ṯu ‘one’
*on-patV ‘ten minus one’
*oy- ‘to carry’
*oḷ-an ‘house’ Pre-Gondi see uḷ- ‘to be’
*oẓ-ukk- ‘to spin’
*ōṭu v.i. ‘to flee’
→ *ōṭṭ-am ‘defeat’
*ōtu ‘to recite, read’
*ōntti bloodsucker lizard
*ōr-/*or-V- adj. ‘one’
*kac (> kay) ‘to be bitter’; n. ‘bitterness’
*kañci ‘gruel’
*kaṭ-/*kaṭṭ- ‘to tie, bind’
*kaṭṭ-ay n. ‘a dam’
*kaṭ-ac- ‘male of cattle, heifer’
*kaṭ-ampu Anthocephalus cadamba
*kaṭ-ay ‘end, place’
*kaṭ-al ‘sea, ocean’
*kaṭ-V- ‘be bitter, pungent’
*kaṭ-V- wild buffalo
*kaṭ-V-ñcc/-ntt ‘stag’
*kaṇ ‘eye’
→ *kaṇ-ṇīr ‘tear’
*kaṇṭ-anṯu ‘husband, warrior’ SD I
*katti ‘knife’
*kan-acV ‘dream, to dream’
*kap- ~ *kapp-/*kaw-V ‘to cover’
*kapp-a ‘frog’
*kapp-am ‘a kind of tax, tribute’
*kapp-al ‘ship, boat’
*kap-Vḷ ‘cheek’
*kam-kuẓi ‘armpit’
*kay ‘hand, arm’
*kay-tay fragrant screw-pine
*kay-tVkk- fragrant screw-pine
*kay-m- (> key-m-) ‘field’
*kay-V-l/-kk-/-mpp- ‘fish of different kinds’
*kar-umpu ‘sugar-cane’ SD I
*kar-Vḷ ‘bowels’
*kar-Vnk Pongamia glabra
*kar-V-nt- ‘to consider, intend’
→ *kar-V-ntt n. ‘will, mind’ SD I + Te.
*kar-Vnti ‘red gram’
*kal ‘stone’
*kal-/*kaṯ- ‘to learn’
*kala-kala onom. of ‘rustle, tinkle, rattle’
*kal-a-nku ‘to be stirred’
→ *kal-a-nkku ‘to stir’ PSD
*kal-Vnk- ‘covered drain, sluice’ SD
*kal-ac- ‘to quarrel’
*kal-am ‘boat, ship’
*kaw-Vḷi ‘a house lizard’
*kaḷ-am/-an ‘an open place (threshing floor, battle ground)’
*kaẓ-ut-ay ‘donkey’
*kaẓ-u-tt- ‘neck/throat’ SD I
→ *kaẓ-nt(t)- Tu., CD, SD II
*kaḷ ‘toddy’
*kaḷ-/*kaṇ- ‘to steal’
*kaẓi (-nt-) v.i. ‘time to pass, be spent’
→ *(-nt-t-) v.t. ‘to spend, waste, reject’ PSD
*kaẓ-V-ku/-tu ‘eagle’
*kaẓ-Vt ‘paddy field’
*kā-kk-ay ‘crow’
*kāṇ- (< *kaHṇ-) ‘to see’
*kāṇ-ikk-ay ‘gift’
*kāṯ- ‘plough-share’
*kā(-tt-) ‘to protect, guard’
*kā(-n), kā-ṭu ‘forest’
*kā, kā-n-, kā-ṭV n. ‘forest’
*kā-nk- ‘big clay pot’
*kāy ‘fruit, pod’
*kāy, kā-nku v.i. ‘to be hot, dry up, burn’
→ *kā-nkku v.t. ‘to be hot, dry up, burn’
→ *kā-ntu v.i. ‘to be hot, dry up, burn’
→ *kā-nttu v.t. ‘to be hot, dry up, burn’
→ *kā-mpu v.i. ‘to be hot, dry up, burn’
→ *kā-mppu v.t. ‘to be hot, dry up, burn’
*kār/*kar-V ‘dark, black, dark clouds’
*kāl ‘canal’
*kāl ‘leg, foot’
*kā-waṭi ‘shoulder pole’
*kic-ampu > kiy-ampu > kī-mpu/*kē-mpu ‘yam’, Arum colocasia see kē-mpu
*kic-Vkic-V onom. ‘chirping, squeaking’
*kiṇṭ-V- ‘metal pot’
*kiṯ-u-tt-/-mp- ‘cheetah, panther’
*kiṯṯ-eli ‘mouse’
*kin- ‘to be angry’ PSD I
*kir-V- ‘ear’ (some languages of SD I and II)
*kil- ‘sound, noise’ PSD
*kil- ‘to be able’ SD I
*kil-/*kiṯ- ‘small’
*kil-a ‘some’
*kiḷi ‘parrot’
*kiẓ-ank- ‘tuber, root’ SD I see kīẓ/kiẓ-V
*kī-ṯ ‘scratch’
*kīṯ-/*kiṯ-V ‘small’
*kīw/*kiw-V- ‘snow, ice’
*kīẓ/*kiẓ-V-kk ‘below’; ‘low; area, east’ SD I
*kucc-/*kuc-V- ‘greens’
*kuṭ-al ‘intestines’ SD I
*kuṭ-V/*kuṇṭ-V ‘eyeball’
*kuṇṭV ‘heart, kidney’
*kuṯ-ay- (kuṯ-ay-nt-, kuṯ-ay-ntt-) ‘to be reduced in size’
*kuṯ-V ‘short’ PSD
*kuṯ-V-nk-/-w ‘thigh’ SD I
*kut-i ‘to jump’
→ *kut-ir-ay ‘horse’ SD I
*kut-V- ‘club’
*kunṯ-am/-u ‘hill’
*kunṯ-i crab's eye, a plant’
*kun-tāl/-tāḷ ‘pick-axe’
*ku-nt-/*ntt- ~ *ko-nt-/*ntt- ‘throat, voice, tone’ SD I, SD II
*kupp-V ‘heap’
*kur-uṭu ‘blindness’
*kur-V-c- ‘deer’
*kur-Vwi ‘small pot’
*kur-V-wi ‘sparrow’
*kuḷ-am/-Vnc- ‘lake’
*kuẓ-V ‘pit, hollow’
*kūṭ-u v.i. ‘to be joined, meet’
→ *kūṭṭ- (< *kūṭ-tt) v.t. ‘to unite, put together’
→ *kūṭṭ-am n. ‘union’
→ *kūṭ-al ‘joining’
→ *kūṭṭ-al ‘uniting’ PSD
*kūṭ-u ‘nest’
*kūnt(t)- ‘mushroom’
*kūn-ttu/-ccu/-kku ‘daughter’
*kūm-/*kum-V- ‘pigeon, dove’
*kū-r- ‘to sleep’
*kūl-i ‘paddy’
*kūẓ ‘porridge’
*kec-aṯ- ‘mud, slush’
*keṭ-u ‘to perish, decay’
→ *kēṭu n. ‘damage’ (< *keHṭu)
→ *keṭ-al ‘evil’
→ *keṭu-ti n. ‘ruin’
→ *keṭ-ṭa ‘evil’
*keṯ-ay/-uwu ‘tank’
*keṯ-V- ‘wing, feather’ PSD
*kep- ‘to tell, scold’
→ *kew-i ‘ear’
→ *kew-iṭu ‘deafness’
*kem ‘red’
*kem-pu ‘copper vessel’ see kem
*key- ‘to do’
*key-(a)m ‘wet field’
*key-pi- ‘to cause one to do’ see keyker-uppu ‘sandal’
*kew-i ‘ear’ see kepke
*l-ay ‘to dig up’
*kēṯ- ‘to winnow’
→ *kēṯ-ṯV n. ‘winnowing basket’
*kē-mpu (< *key-ampu < *kic-ampu) ‘yam’ PSD see kic-ampu
*kēḷ-/*kēṇ- ‘to hear, ask’
*koc-V- ‘pot-making’
*koṭ-ay ‘umbrella’
*koṭ-Vkku ‘west’
*koṭṭ- ~ *koṭ- ‘to beat’
*koṭṭay ‘stone of fruit’
*koṯ-a ‘to become short’
*koṯ-aṇṭ-/-añc- ‘henna’ Barleria sp.
*koṯ-ay ‘to pierce’ PSD
*koṯ-i ‘sheep’
*koṯ-u ‘chicken’ SD II
*koṯ-V ‘a kind of millet’
*koy- ‘to cut, harvest crop’
*kor-Vnk-/-nkk- ‘a stork, crane’
*kor-V-nkk-/-ntt- ‘monkey’
*kol ‘smithy’
*kol- ‘to kill’
*koḷ-/*koṇ- ‘to receive, buy’; reflexive marker
*koẓ-utt-V ‘new’
*kō/*kō-n-ṯu ‘king, mountain’
*kōṭ-u ‘horn’
→ *kōṯ- ‘horn’ SD II
*kōṭṭ-ay ‘fort’
*kōṭ-ay ‘west wind, monsoon’ PSD I
*kōn-yāṯu ‘temple tank, open well’ see kō-
*kōy-il ‘palace, temple’ (King’s/God’s abode) PSD
*kōl ‘stick, plough-shaft’
*kōẓ/*koẓ-V ‘new, young, tender’
*kōẓ-/*koẓ-V ‘son, young one’
*kōẓi ‘chicken’
*caṭa-ppī ‘cowdung’ (lit. bullock’s excrement)
*caṭVcaṭV ‘cracking sound’
*caṭṭi ‘small pot’
*caṯ-V adj. ‘six’
→ *cāṯ-u ‘six’ (3n-m pl)
*cat-V- ‘to read’ Pre-Te.
*cam-V- ‘to be made, to form’
*cay-m- adj. ‘five’
→ *cay-m-tu ‘five’ (3n-m pl)
*car-ac- ‘snake’ PSD
*cal-/*can- (can-ṯ- < *cal-nt- PSD I, can-ṯṯ- PSD II) ‘to go, pass, occur’
*caḷ-/*caṇ- ‘cool, cold’
*caḷ-V- ‘buttermilk’
*caH- ~ *ceH- (past ca-tt-/*ce-tt-) ‘to die’
→ *caH-/*cā- ‘to die’ PSD
→ *cay-/*cāy- ‘to die’ PCD
→ *keH-/*key- ‘to die’ PND
*cār-/*cēr- ‘to go reach’
*cāl ‘ploughed furrow’
*cāl-iy-anṯu ‘nephew/son-in-law’
*cāl-Vy-anṯu ‘weaver’
*cinki, cinki-wēr ‘ginger’
*cin-tta ‘tamarind’
*ciy-/*cī- ‘to give’
*cir- ‘black’
→ *cir-a-, cir-V-ḷ/-nk- ‘darkness’
→ *cir-umpu ‘black metal/iron’
*cir ‘day’ CD
*cir-V-tt- ‘the low area, east’ SD I
*cil- ‘to be not’
*cīk-kāy soapnut
*cīn-kk- ‘darkness’
*cīn-t(t)-V- date palm
*cī-p/*cay-pp- ‘sweeping broom’
*cīr-ppī ‘nits’ (lit. lice eggs) PSD
*cukk-V ‘star’
*cup/*cow-ar ‘salt’ SD II
→ *up/*ow-ar ‘salt’ SD I, Te.
*cum-V- ‘to carry on head’; n. ‘head-pad’
*cuw- ‘pipal tree’
*cūṭ-/*cuṭ-V- ‘be hot, burn’
→ cut- ‘be hot, burn’ SD II
*cūr/*cur-V- ‘to curl up’
*cū-ẓ ‘to see, deliberate’
*ceṯ-ank-/-ankk- ‘wing’
*ceṯ-Vkk- ‘sugar-cane’ SD II
*cey-t-/*coy-t- ‘porcupine’
*cer- ‘to insert’
*cēr ‘plough yoked to oxen’
*cēl-āḷ ‘younger sister’ SD II
*coṭ- ‘to drip’
*coṭṭ-V ‘lame’
*coṯ-ac- ‘shark’
*col- ‘to speak, relate’
*col-(ay) ‘fireplace’
*cōṭ- ‘to run’
→ *cōṭ-am ‘boat’
*ñaṇṭ- ‘crab’
*ñam-V-l ‘peacock/peahen’
*ñam-kō l ‘plough, our stick’
*ñāc-Vṯu ‘son’ SD I
*ñāṇ/*ñēṇ ‘string, cord’
*ñāṯu ‘seedlings for transplantation’
*ñāṯu ‘to emit smell’
*ñānṯ-V- Eugenia jambolana
*ñān-ṯu/*ñēn-ṯu ‘day, time, today’ PSD
*ñā-n/*ñan- ‘I’ (1sg nom/obl innovated in PSD)
*ñām/*ñam- ‘we’ (1pl incl)
*takar ‘ram’
*taṭṭ-/*taṭ-V- ‘measles’
*taṇ adj. ‘cool, cold’
*taṇṭ-al ‘boatman’
*tan-tay/*tan-ṯi ‘father’
*tapa-tapa/*daba-daba onom. ‘walking fast’
*tam-kay ‘younger sister’
*tamp-V- ‘younger brother’
*tar-/*tā- (< *taH-r -/*taH-, neg. and pos.) ‘to give to 1st or 2nd person’
*tar-V- ‘to churn buttermilk’
*tal-ay ‘head, hair, top’
*taḷḷ-ay/-i ‘mother’
*taẓ-Vnk-/-nkk ‘liver’
*tā-ṇṭu ‘to dance, jump’
*tātt-a ‘grand father’
*tān/*tan- (< *taHn-) ‘self’ (3refl sg), emphatic particle SD I
*tānṯi Beleric myrobalan
*tāli ‘wedding string with a gold piece’ SD I, Te.
*tāẓ palmyra tree’
*tāẓ-waṭam ‘a string of beads/pearls’
*tiṯ-V- ‘to open’
*tink-aḷ ‘moon’ SD I
*tiy-am ‘honey’
*tirV- ‘be changed’
→ *tir-ay ‘to roll’
→ *tir-a-nku ‘be curled up’
→ *tir-a-nkku ‘to shrivel up’
→ *tir-i (-v-, -nt-) v.i. ‘to turn’
→ *(-pp-, -ntt-) v.t. ‘to turn’
→ *tir-u-ku, tir-u-mpu v.i. ‘to twist’
→ *tir-u-kku, tir-u-mppu v.t. ‘to twist’
→ *tir-u-ntu v.i. ‘to be corrected’
→ *tir-u-nttu v.t. ‘to correct’
→ *tir-uḷ ‘to turn’
*tirV-kal ‘a hand-mill’
*tiHn- (past tin-ṯ-/*tin-ṯṯ-) ‘to eat’
→ *tī-nṯṯ- ‘to feed’
*tuñc- ‘to sleep’
*tul-acV ‘sacred basil’
*tuw-Vṯ- ‘to drizzle’
*tuw-Vr ‘coral’
*tū-nk- v.i. to swing’
→ *tū-nkk- v.t. ‘to swing’
*tēr ‘chariot’ SD
*tēr/*ter-V- ‘to become clear, to know’
*ten, teṯ-kku ‘south’
*tepp-V- ‘float’
*teḷ-V- ‘white, clear’; v. ‘to become clear, to know’
*tēṯṯ- ‘to recover’
*tē- (< *tew-i-) ‘be full, satiated’
*tē- (< *tiy-a) ‘sweet’ PSD
*tēn-ī ‘honey-bee’ (lit. honey-fly) SD I
*tēn-kk- ‘teak’
*tēḷ ‘scorpion’
*tokk-/*tok-al/*tō-l ‘skin’ PSD
*toṭ-V- ‘to hold’
*toṇṭ-V- ‘chameleon’
*toṯ-V ‘cattle, cow’
*tor-Vmp- ‘lungs’
*toḷ-/*toṇ- ‘nine, 9/10’
*toẓ-V- ‘slavery’
*toẓ-V ‘cattle stall’
*tōc-ay ‘a cereal pancake’ SD
*tōṇ-ṭṭ-am (< *tōṇṭu) ‘garden’
*tōn-tu ‘to appear, strike to mind’
*tō-l (< *tok-al) PSD see tokktōẓ-/tōẓ-nt- ‘wolf’
*nakk- ‘to lick’
*naṭ-a ‘to walk’
*nan-key ‘good (wet) land’
*na-mpu (< *nay-mp-) ‘to long for’
*nari-(kkV) ‘jackal’
*nal ‘good, beautiful’ PSD
*naH-ay/-att/-kuẓi ‘dog’
*nāṭu ‘country, place’
→ *nāṯu ‘country, place’ SD II
*nā (obl of 1sg) SD II
*nām-/*nam-V- ‘be emaciated’
*nā-l, nā-l-nk(k)
*nāl/*nal-V- adj. ‘four’
→ *nāl-nk(k)V ‘four’ (3n-m pl)
*nāḷ ‘day’
→ *nāṇ-ṭ- (< *nāḷ-nt-) ‘day’ SD II
*nāḷ/*naḷ-V- ‘night’
*niṯ(V)-nay/-nal/-nāḷ ‘yesterday, completed day’
*niṯ-, nin-ṯ- v.i. ‘to be full’
*nil-/*niṯ-/*niṯṯ- ‘to stand’
*nī- (< *niw-V-) ‘be elongated’
*nī (obl of 2sg) SD II
*nī- ‘to abandon’
*nī-n/*nin- ‘thou’ (2sg)
*nī-r ‘you’ (2pl) PSD
*nīr ‘water’
*nuẓ-Vḷ/-nk- ‘mosquito’
*nūṯ- (obl. nūṯ-ṯV) ‘hundred’
*nūy ‘well’
*nūl ‘thread’
*nū(w) sesame
*nūẓ/*nuẓ-V- ‘to squeeze through’
*nek-Vḷ ‘alligator’
*nec-/*ney- ‘to weave’
*neñ-cV ‘mind, heart, pith’ SD I see nen-ay
*nen-ay ‘to think’ see neñ-cu SD I
*ney ‘oil, ghee’
*nel ‘a paddy variety’
*nel-a-nc/-ncc ‘moon, moonlight’
*nel-V- ‘month’
*nell-/*nel-V- myrobalan tree’, Phyllanthus emblica
*nēram ‘time, sun’ SD I, Br.
*noṭ- ‘to wash’
→ *noṯ- ‘to wash’ SD II
*noṭ-V- ‘to say’
*nōn-pu ‘a religious vow’
*nōy- (nōy-nt-) ‘to pain’
*pak-al ‘daylight’
*pac-V- ‘calf’
*pacc- ~ *pac- ‘yellow/green’
*pac-Vṇṭ- ‘yellow metal/gold’
*pac-Vṯ-/-Vl ‘green gram’
*paṭ-Vku ‘small boat, ferry’
*paḍḍ-V ‘a female buffalo’ SD II
*paṇ-V- ‘work’
*pan ‘agriculture land’
*pan-ī(kil) ‘dew, cold, chill’
*pan-ṯi ‘pig’
*pan-nīr ‘cool water, rose water’
*pan-V- ‘palm tree’
*pay- ‘to break, separate’
*par-a ‘to spread’
*par-utti ‘cotton’
*par-Vṇṭu ‘bullfrog’
*par-Vntu ‘vulture’
*pal ‘tooth’
*pal-acV/*pan-acV jackfruit tree’
*pall-i ‘a lizard’
*pal-V ‘many’
*paw-aẓ ‘coral’
*paḷḷi ‘hamlet’
*paẓ-a ‘old, used’ (mainly referring to objects)
*paẓ-V- (paẓ-nt-) ‘to ripen’
*paH- adj. ‘ten’
→ *paH-tu ‘ten’ (3n-m pl)
*pāṭṭ-ān ‘grand father’
*pāṭ-V ‘to sing’
→ *pāṯ- ‘to sing’ SD II
*pāṇ-/*paṇ-V- ‘ask, commission’
*pāṯ-/*paṯ-V- ‘to run, flee’
*pānkk- ‘betel nut’ SD I
*pāmpu ‘snake’
*pāy (pāy-nt-) ‘to leap’
*pār ‘to see, perceive, know’
*pār-ay, ‘crowbar’
*pāl ‘milk, breast’
*pic-V- ~ *piẓ-V- ‘to squeeze’
*picc-/*pic-V- ‘insanity’
*piṭ-i v.t. ‘to grasp’; n. ‘handle’
*piṇṭ- (< *piẓ-nt-) ‘to squeeze’
*piṯ-u ‘rain’ SD II, ND
*pin/*piṯ- ‘back, end in place or time, afterwards’
*pin-cc-Vr ‘name’
→ *pec-ar ‘name’ PSD
*piy/*pī ‘excrement’
*pill-V ‘cat’
*piẓi- (piẓi-nt-) ‘to squeeze’
*piẓ-ul ‘intestines’ CD
*piẓ-Vcc- ‘sparrow’
*pī-t-/*pi-tt- ‘to fart’
*pīr ‘thatched grass’
*puc/*puy Schleichera trijuga
*puc-V/*put-V- ‘new’
*puṭṭi ‘a measure of c. 500 lbs.’
*puṯ-ac- ‘dove, pigeon’
*puṯ-V ‘gourd shell, skull’
*pun-key ‘bad (dry) land’
*punttV ‘white-anthill’
*pun-nay ‘mastwood’
*puy/*pū n. ‘flower’; v.i. ‘to blossom’
*pur-uṭu ‘birth pollution’ SD
*pul ‘grass’
*pul-i ‘tiger’
*pul-V- ‘pollution’
*puḷ- adj. ‘sour’
*puẓ-u ‘insect’; v.i. ‘to blossom’
*pūṇ ‘to put on, wear, be yoked’
→ *pūṇ-ṭṭ- (< *pūṇ-tt-) ‘to cause to put on, yoke’
*peṭ-a ‘nape of neck’
*peṭṭ-i ‘box’ PSD
*peṇ ‘woman’
→ *peṇ-ṭṭ-i ‘female of an animal/bird’
→ *peṇ-(ḍ)li ‘marriage’ SD II
*peṇ-kk- ‘tile’
*per-V- ‘to grow big’ see pēr/per-Vpeẓ-an ‘bone, stone of fruit’
*pēc-/*pēẓ- ‘to talk, prattle’
*pēṇ/*pēy ‘devil, god’
*pēṇṭ-V (< *peeḷ-nt-) ‘cattle dung’
*pēṯ- ‘curd, to curdle’
→ *peṯ-V ‘to curdle’
→ *peṯ-uku ‘curd’
*pēn ‘louse’
*pēr/*per-V ‘big’
*po- ‘to perforate’
*pok-ay ‘smoke’ PSD
*pok-kuẓ-V- ‘navel’ SD I, SD II, CD
*pok-Vḷ- imperial pigeon
*pok-Vẓ ‘to praise’
*poc-/*poy- ‘to lie’
→ *poy-nkk- ‘to lie’
→ *poy-nkk-am n. ‘falsehood’ (Pre-Telugu)
*poṭṭ-/*poṭ-V- ‘belly, stomach, pregnancy, intestines’
*poṯ-Vl ‘lungs’
*po-nku ‘to boil’
*por-a-/*prō- ‘to sell’ PSD II
*por-ay ‘cataract of eye’
*pol-am ‘field’
*pon ‘gold’ PSD
*pō- ‘to go’
→ *pō-k- ‘to go’
→ *pō-kk- ‘to send’ PSD
*pō-ntt- ‘male of an animal/bird’
*pōr ‘fight, battle’
→ *pōr/*por-V- ‘to fight’ v.t.
*pōẓ/*poẓ-u-tu ‘sun’
*mak-antu ‘son, male’
→ *mak-aḷ ‘daughter’
*mac-V- ~ *maẓ-V- ‘to delay, be dull’
*maṯ-i (nṯu) ‘male child, the young of an animal’
*maṭi-wēl- ‘washerman’ (maṭi ‘ceremonial purity’ + wēl-ay ‘work’) SD I, Te.
*maṯ-V- ‘be hidden, to forget’
*maṯ-Vku ‘covered drain’ SD
*maṯ-kāy ‘mango’ SD II
*mat-al/*mat-uw-ay ‘marriage’ SD I
*man- (man-ṯ-/-ṯṯ-) ‘to be, to live, stay’; also copular verb
*man-ay ‘house, place to live in’ see manmaya-
*nk- ‘to be confused’
→ *maya-nkk- v.t. ‘to confuse’
→ *may-nkk-am n. ‘confusion’
*may-nt(t)- ‘fog, mist, dew’
*may-(mt)- ‘body’
→ *mē-nd- ‘body’
*may-Vr ‘peacock’
*mar-am/-an ‘tree’
*mar-untu ‘medicine’
*mar-Vt- Terminalia tomentosa
*maẓ-ay ‘rain’ SD I
*maẓ-V-/*maṯ-V ‘axe’
*maẓc-a- ‘husband’
*mā (obl of 1pl) SD II
*mā ‘animal, beast, deer’
*māṭ-V, mēṭ-ay ‘terraced house’
*māṯ- v.i. ‘to be changed, altered’
→ *māṯṯ- (< *māṯ-tt-) v.t. ‘to change, alter’
*mā-m ‘mango tree’
*māma ‘paternal (father’s sister’s husband)/maternal uncle’
*māy-tt-/*mā-cc- ‘man, husband’
*mic-al/*miy-al > mē-l ‘above, high’
*mit-Vẓ ‘brain, the physical part’
*miḷ-Vku ‘black pepper’
*miHn ‘star’
→ *min- ‘to shine, twinkle’
*mī (obl of 2pl), SD II
*mīn ‘fish’
*muc-Vl ‘hare’
*mucc- ~ *muc-V- ‘to cover’
*muttV ‘pearl’
*mutt-/*mut-V ‘old, ancient’
→ *mut-tāta ‘great grandfather’
*mun adj. ‘prior, before, front’
*mun-ay ‘war-front’
*mun-nay/-nāḷ ‘day before yesterday’
*muy-il ‘cloud’
*muy-cc- baboon
*mul-ay ‘breast, teat’ SD I
*muẓ-u-nk v.i. ‘to sink’
→ *muẓ-u-nkk v.t. ‘to drown’
*muH-/*mū- adj. ‘three’
→ *mū-nṯu ‘three’ (3n-m pl)
*mūṭṭ-ay ‘bundle’
*mū-nk(k)u/-nc- ‘nose, beak’
*mūnk-ūc mongoose
*mūḷ-V- ‘bone marrow’
*mentt-i fenugreek
*mel-k- ‘to become soft’
*meẓ-V- ‘to plaster’
*mē-/*mē-l ‘above, high’ see mic-al
*mē-nkkV ‘goat’
*mēy ‘to graze’
*mēl, mēṯ-kk- ‘the high place, west’
*mēẓi ‘plough handle’
*moc-Vr ‘buttermilk’ SD I
*moy-al ‘hare’ PSD
*moẓ-V- ‘joint’
→ *moẓ-am kāl/-kay ‘knee/elbow joint’
*moẓ-V- ‘to speak’
*mōc-/*moc-V-ḷ ‘crocodile’
*yAH, yĀH/*yĀ ‘which’ (interrogative root)
*yĀṭu ‘goat, sheep’
*yAṇṭ-u ‘year’
*yĀtu ‘river, stream’
*yĀn/*yAn- (< *yAH-n-) ‘I’ (1sg)
*yĀn-ay ‘elephant’
*yĀm-ay, ? cām-p- ‘tortoise’
*yĀmp (?< *hāmp- < *cāmp-) ‘tortoise’
*yĀ-w-anṯ-/-at ‘who, what’ see ya(a)H
*yĀḷ ‘to rule’
*wak-ay ‘to deliberate’ SD I, Te.
*wac-Vṯ ‘stomach, foetus’ SD I
*wac-V-(kk) ‘stomach, foetus’ SD II except Te., was-Vr- / -nc- Tu.
*waṭ-a-kku ‘north’ PSD
*waṯ- ~ *waṯṯ-/*waṯ-V- ‘to dry up’
*waṯ-V- ‘cook, fry’
*way- ‘to throw’ aux. SD II
*war-iñci ‘rice’
*war-V- ‘scratch, draw lines’
*wal ‘strong’
→ *wal-a kay ‘right hand’
*waḷi ‘wind’
*waẓ-V-t ‘brinjal’
*waH-/*waH-r ‘to come’
→ *wa-nt- < *war-nt- ‘came’ (past) SD I, CD, ND
→ *wa-cc-/*wā-tt- ‘came’ (past) SD II
*wān-am ‘sky’
*wān-ay ‘a large earthen pot to store grain’ cf. wān/wan-V- ‘to fashion, form (as a pot)’
*wāy ‘mouth (edge, beak, mouth of vessel, aperture, blade of sword)’
*wāy-/*way-V- ‘open space, paddy field’
*wāy-cc-i ‘sword’
*wāḷ ‘sword’
*wāẓ ‘to flourish’
*wāẓ-ay ‘banana’ SD I
*wiṭ-u ‘to leave’ PSD
*witt-V ‘seed’; ‘to sow’
*wir-al ‘finger’ SD I
→ *wir-and/-anj ‘finger’ SD II, CD
*wiri-nk- ‘to open, crack’
→ *wiri-nkk- v.t. ‘to open, split’
*wiriñc- ‘finger’
*wil ‘bow’
*wil- ‘to sell’
→ *wil-ay ‘price’
*wīṭu ‘abode’
*wīẓ-/*wiẓ-V- ‘to fall’
*wekk- ~ *wek-V- ‘to hiccup, a hiccup’
*wec-/*wey- ‘roast, fry, heat’
*weṇ-ṇey ‘butter’ (< *weḷ + ney ‘white oil’)
*wet-V- v.t. ‘to search’; ‘to marry’ ND
*weruku ‘cat’
*weḷ/*weṇ ‘white’
→ *weḷḷ-ay, weḷ-u-ppu ‘whiteness’ cf. Te. weṇd. i ‘silver’ (< *weḷ-nt-)
*weḷ-V- wood-apple
*wēṇṭ-V (< *wēḷ-nt-) ‘to want, desire’ PSD
*wēnt-anṯu ‘king, god’
*wē-mpu neem tree
*wēṇ-ṭta ‘hunting’
*wēy ‘to thatch’
*wēy-i ‘1000’ cf. wey-am ‘extensiveness’
*wēr ‘root’
*wēḷ (< *weH-ḷ) ‘to desire’ see wēṇṭ-V
*Vbi + taH- complex verb stem SD I, SD II
*Vbinf + kūṭu ‘Vb + suit’ (permissive/prohibitive) SD I, SD II
*Vbinf + ciy- ‘Vb + give’ (permissive) SD II
*Vbinf + paṭu- ‘Vb + suffer’ (passive) SD I
*Vbinf + wēṇṭu ‘Vb + must’ (obligative) SD I
*Vbppl + iru- ‘Vb + to be’ (perfective) SD I
*Vbppl + ā ‘Vb + to be’ (completive) SD I
*Vbppl + koṭu ‘Vb + give’ (benefactive) SD I
*Vbppl + koḷ-/*koṇ- ‘Vb + take’ (reflexive)
*Vbppl + pō- ‘Vb + go’ (exhaustive) SD I, SD II
*Vbppl + wiṭu ‘Vb+ leave’ (completive) SD I
→ *(-w)-in ~ *-im/-ir imperative sg/pl SD I

Bound forms (grammatical markers)Edit

Proto-Dravidian Glosses and notes
*-a/-i oblique markers
*-aṯṯ 1pl incl marker in verbs SD II, some CD and ND
*-aṯṯ obl marker SD I, SD II, aw-aṯṯ-
*-at n-m sg
*-ad/-aw 3n-m sg/pl SD II
*-an accusative case marker
*-an obl marker in n-h dem pronouns SD I, SD II
→ *at-an-, it-an-, et-an-, aw-an-, iw-an-, ew-an- Pre-Tel., obls of demonstrative and interrogative stems
*-an-Ø (< *an-t-) 3m sg SD I
*-an/-in oblique markers
*-ant-/-want 3hum m suffix, -an/-wan SD I
*-an-ṯṯ-/-in-ṯṯ complex oblique makers
*-am-t-am (deverbal noun formative)
→ *opp-antam ‘agreement’ SD I, Te.
*-ay accusative case marker
*-ay ~ *i/-ir 2sg/pl ND
*-ar/-ār 3h pl SD I
*-ar/-war m pl/hum pl
*-al infinitive-nominal marker
*-(w)-in ~ *-im/-ir imperative sg/pl SD I
*-a(w) 3neu pl SD I
*-aw non-m pl/non-h pl
*-aḷ/-āḷ 3f sg SD I
*-aH-aH/-āH negation marker in verbs
*-ā clitic (interrogative)
*-ān/-an/-a infinitive markers
*-āl/-ān instrumental case markers
*-a/-i past-participle marker
*-i- ~ *-in- past-tense marker
*-i f sg suffix in derivation
*-(i)kk-ay (noun formative), kōru ‘to desire’
→ *kōr-i-kk-ay n. ‘wish, desire’ PSD
*-ītt/-a-tt-/-tt-i/-tt-a- complex oblique markers
*-il/-in locative case markers
*-in/-il conditional non-finite verbmark er
*-ī̆, -ā̆y 2sg suffix in finite verbs SD I
*-ī̆r (replacing older -īm) 2pl suffix in finite verbs SD I
*-um ‘also, totality, any/one (added to interrogative forms), and, even’ (coordinating suffix)
*-um aorist future marker
*-uḷ/-uḷ-a- locative postposition
*-ē clitic (emphatic)
*-ē clitic (interrogative)
*-ēn/-ēm conditional non-finite verb marker
*-ō clitic (dubitative-alternative)
*-oṭu/-ōṭu sociative case marker SD I
*-k-a/-kk-a (non-past + infinitive) optative marker SD I, SD II
*-k/-nk non-past intransitive, -kk/-nkk non-past transitive markers
*-kk- past-tense marker
*-c/-cc past-tense marker
*-cc transitive–causative suffix
*-cc-i (n) perfective participle/gerund marker, a sequence of two past allomorphs *-cc- and *-i (n)- PSD, PCD
*-t-al-ay (complex noun formative), oppu-talay
*-tu/-ttu ppl marker SD I
*-tV- non-past marker
*-t/-nt past intransitive, -tt/-ntt past transitive
*-tt oblique marker
→ *-ṯṯ-i-n/-ṯṯ-a-n complex oblique markers
*-tt- past marker SD II
*-tt- transitive–causative suffix
*-t-/-tt- past-tense markers
*-t-en-g infinitive marker SD II
*-nk(k)-Vḷ (non-human plural suffixes) SD I
*-nkk dative case marker
*-ntu aorist marker
*-n-tt-a/-ntt-i complex oblique markers
*-n- non-past/future marker
*-nV oblique marker in nominals
*-p[-w-]/-mp intransitive non-past marker
*-pp/-mpp transitive non-past markers
*-pp- transitive–causative marker
*-pi (~ *-wi- ~ *-ppi-) causative suffix
*-pi-ntt/-mpp ~ *-ppi-ntt/-ppi-mpp- causative suffixes followed by past and non-past morphemes (> palatalized variants, -wi-ncc-/-pi-ncc- of PSD)
*-may (abstract noun formative)
→ *per-u-may ‘abundance’ SD
*-wa negation marker in verbs SD II
*-(w)-in ~ *-im/-ir imperative sg/pl SD I
*-Vṯṯ 1pl incl ND
*-Vd 3n-h sg ND
*-Vnṯ/-Vr 3m sg/h pl ND
*-Vn accusative marker
*-Vn infinitive marker
*-V̄̆n 1sg suffix in finite verbs
*-Vm/-dV imperative sg/pl SD II
*-V̄̆m 1pl suffix in finite verbs
*-Vr (hum pl suffix)
*-Vḷ (non-hum pl suffix) CD, Tel.

Southworth (2005)Edit

Proto-Dravidian agricultural terms reconstructed by Southworth (2005):[2]

Gloss Proto-Dravidian Early/Late Proto-Dravidian
cow *ā(m/n) E
bull *er-utu E
? buffalo *kaṭ-V E
sheep/goat *yĀṭu E
dog (1) *cū E
dog (2) *ñāl- E
dog (3) *naH-ay/att/-kuẓi L
cat (1) *ver-uku E
cat (2) *pill- L?
horse (1) *ivuḷi E?
horse (2) *kHutt- L
ass (Asinus sp.) *kaẓ-ut-ay L
pig *pan-ti L
bear *eḷ-V-ñc- E
rodents (1) *coṇṭṭ- E
rodents (2) *el-i E
primates (1) *muy-cc- E
primates (2) *kor-V-nkk-/-ntt- L
deer (1) *kaṭ- L
deer (2) *uẓ-u-pp- E
deer (3) *mā-y- E
deer (4) *koṭ- L
wild canids (1) *tōẓ-(nt-) E
wild canids (2) *nari-(kkV) L
squirrel *ciṭ(r)/cir(k)- E?
porcupine *cey-t- L (E?)
elephant *yĀnay L
tiger *pul-i L
(wild) cat *pā(vu)k(k)- L
mongoose *mūṅk-ūc- L
fish (gen. term) *mīn E
carp *kiṇṭ- E
frog *par-Vṇṭu E
prawn *et- L
crab *ñaṇṭ- L
crow *kākk-/*kāww- E
crane *korV-nk(k)- E
dove/pigeon *put-Vc- E
(imperial) pigeon *pok- E
peacock (1) *pī-lV/cV/kV E
peacock (2) *pur-/pūr-i-l L
peacock (3) *ñam-V-l L
peacock (4) *mañ(ñ)-il L
parrot *kiḷ- L
lizard *kav-uḷi E
crocodile *mōc-/*moc-V-ḷ- E
bloodsucker lizard *ōn-tti E
snake *carac- L
snake *pāmpu L
snake *cer- L
python *māc-un- L
iguana *uṭ-ump- L
date *cīnt(t)- E
toddy palm *tāẓ E
tamarind *cin-tta E
palas *mur -ukk- E
food/fodder *ār/ar-ak E
? grain/seed (1) *kūli E?
? grain/seed (2) *maṅci-k E?
? rice (1) *maṇṭ- E
? rice (2) *kec- E
? rice (3) *al-ak- E
? rice (4) *(v)ar-iñci L
Italian millet *kot -V L
sorghum *conna-l L
horsegram *koḷ L
black gram (1) *uẓ-untu L
black gram (2) *min(t)- L
pigeon pea *tu-var- L
mung *pac-Vt/Vl L
onion/garlic *uḷḷi E
yam *kic-ampu E
eggplant *vaẓ-Vt- E
sesame *nū(v)- L
sugarcane *cet-Vkk L
cuddapah almond *cir/cīr- L
jujube *irak- L
fig *cuv- L
jambu *ñēṟ-al L
hemp *boy-Vl L?
luffa *pīr- L
drive (animals) *mīṭ- E
graze *mēy- E
to dig *uẓ-V- E
grind (grain) *nūt- E
sift/winnow (1) *teḷ- E
sift/winnow (2) *nē(m)p- E
to churn *kaṭ- E
to uproot/pluck *kaḷ- E
reap/cut (1) *koy- E
reap/cut (2) *ar- L
reap/cut (3) *aru- L
to husk *īk- L?
husk/chaff (1) *uṅk E
husk/chaff (2) *poṇṭṭ- L
? plough (1) *ar-V- E
? plough (2) *ñān-kil L
digging tool *kunt-āḷ- E
? ploughshare *puy-il L
grain container *komm- L?
stall/pen *toẓ-V L
herd/flock *mant-ay L?
sluice/drain *tūmpu L
tank *ket-ay/-uvu L
well *nūy L
fish-hook *kāl L
cowbell *cir-ṅk- L?
low-lying land *kut-Vr- E
uncultivated land (1) *kam(p)a- E?
uncultivated land (2) *kar-V- E
to clear land *eru-kk- E?
field (1) *ñāl- E
field (2) *pol-am L
field (3) *vāy/vay- L
threshing floor *kaḷ-am/an L

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju. 2003. The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press, →ISBN.
  2. ^ Southworth, Franklin C. 2005. Proto-Dravidian Agriculture. Paper presented at the 7th ESCA Round Table Conference, Kyoto, June 2005.

See alsoEdit

Vocabulary lists of Indo-Pacific languages
Papuan

p-Trans-New Guinea • Bayono-Awbono • Paniai Lakes • Kolopom • Bulaka River • Pauwasi • p-South Bougainville • p-Lower Sepik • p-Watam-Awar-Gamay • p-Lakes Plain • p-North Halmahera • p-Timor-Alor-Pantar • p-Alor-Pantar • Tayap • Massep

Australian

North Australian (basic) • p-Nyulnyulan • p-Mirndi • p-Gunwinyguan • Limilngan • Umbugarla • Minkin • p-Pama-Nyungan • p-Arandic • p-Thura-Yura • p-Ngayarda

Others

p-Dravidian • Dravidian • Kusunda • Nihali • Kenaboi • p-Ongan