This Proto-Finnic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Finnic edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Uralic *-pa.

Reconstruction edit

Four allomorphs can be distinguished: *-pa, *-pä were used after stressed syllables, *-ba, *-bä after unstressed ones; *-pa, *-ba were used in words with back vowel harmony, *-pä, *-bä in words with front vowel harmony.

Suffix edit

*-pa / *-pä

  1. -ing; forms the present (active) participle, which is used as an adjective.
  2. (clarification of this definition is needed) Forms adjectives from nouns.
Inflection edit

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Estonian: -v
  • Finnish: -va (also -pa in relics)
  • Ingrian: -va
  • Karelian: -va (also -pa in relics)
  • Veps: -b
  • Võro: -v
  • Votic: -va

Etymology 2 edit

Often connected with Latvian -ba (just, namely), Lithuanian (just, namely), which have a solid Indo-European etymology (Proto-Indo-European *bʰo; further compare e.g. Lithuanian (without; but), ultimately from *bʰe, but the vocalism seems to rule this option out), and the Finnic particles are usually considered to be borrowed from Baltic.[1][2] However, the Finnic particle has also been compared with Komi-Zyrian [script needed] (), Udmurt [script needed] (pe), suggesting possible inheritance. It may however merely be a shift from etymology 1 caused by the conditional weakening or loss of the ending in many descendants, leading to it being reanalyzed as an emphatic particle, but may have been reinforced by the similar Baltic particles.

Particle edit


  1. An emphatic particle.
Descendants edit

References edit

  1. ^ Hakulinen, Lauri. 1941–2000. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys ('The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'). Helsinki: Otava/Helsingin yliopisto.
  2. ^ Junttila, Santeri. Tiedon kumuloituminen ja trendit lainasanatutkimuksessa: kantasuomen balttilaislainojen tutkimushistoria (2015). p. 94, 99