Hungarian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finno-Ugric *-mp. In the Proto-Hungarian period it became -b due to regular phonetic change, then later lengthened to -bb. Cognates include Finnish -mpi.[1]

Suffix edit


  1. (comparative suffix, somewhat archaic) -er, more (still used in compound verb-forming suffixes)
    idős (old) + ‎-b → ‎idősb (older, senior)
    külön (separate) + ‎-b → ‎különb (superior, split from the original)
    súlyos (serious, grave) + ‎-b → ‎súlyosbodik (to become graver)
    súlyos (serious, grave) + ‎-b → ‎súlyosbít (to make graver, aggravate)
    öreg (old (archaic: grand, great)) + ‎-b → ‎öregbít (to enhance, bolster [reputation], literally “to make greater)
    helyes (correct, right) + ‎-b → ‎helyesbít (to rectify)
    kevés (few, little [in quantity]) + ‎-b → ‎kevésbé (less [to less extent/degree]), kevesbít (to lessen)
    utol (at the end, obsolete) + ‎-b → ‎utóbb (later, originally utolb)

Usage notes edit

  • (comparative suffix) Variants:
    -b is added to some words ending in a consonant; an archaic variant
    idős (elderly) + ‎-b → ‎idősb (senior) (the modern comparative is idősebb)
    -bb is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    drága (expensive) + ‎-bb → ‎drágább (more expensive)
    fekete (black) + ‎-bb → ‎feketébb (blacker)
    -abb is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    fiatal (young) + ‎-abb → ‎fiatalabb (younger)
    -obb is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    nagy (big) + ‎-obb → ‎nagyobb (bigger)
    -ebb is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    öreg (old) + ‎-ebb → ‎öregebb (older)
Aside from the literal, relative sense, the comparative in Hungarian can also have an absolute sense, e.g. nagyobb is not necessarily “larger” but also “somewhat large”, “fairly large”, “largish”, “a little on the large side” (but not truly large). This sense is already lexicalized in the case of több, which doesn’t only mean “more” but also “several, multiple” (though not “many”).

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ -bb in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, page 61, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Lushootseed edit

Suffix edit


  1. Suffix involved in formation of agent-oriented intransitive verb stems

Veps edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-pi.

Suffix edit


  1. Suffix of the third-person singular.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-pa.

Suffix edit


  1. (no longer productive) -ing; forms a secondary present active participle of a few verbs.
Inflection edit
Inflection of -b (inflection type 6/kuva)
nominative sing. -b
genitive sing. -ban
partitive sing. -bad
partitive plur. -bid
singular plural
nominative -b -bad
accusative -ban -bad
genitive -ban -biden
partitive -bad -bid
essive-instructive -ban -bin
translative -baks -bikš
inessive -bas -biš
elative -baspäi -bišpäi
illative -baha -bihe
adessive -bal -bil
ablative -balpäi -bilpäi
allative -bale -bile
abessive -bata -bita
comitative -banke -bidenke
prolative -badme -bidme
approximative I -banno -bidenno
approximative II -bannoks -bidennoks
egressive -bannopäi -bidennopäi
terminative I -bahasai -bihesai
terminative II -balesai -bilesai
terminative III -bassai
additive I -bahapäi -bihepäi
additive II -balepäi -bilepäi
Derived terms edit