-ing

See also: ing, ing-, -ing-, Ing, and Ing.

Contents

EnglishEdit

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Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, -ung ‎(-ing, suffix forming nouns from verbs), from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō, from Proto-Indo-European *-enkw-. Cognate with West Frisian -ing ‎(-ing), Dutch -ing ‎(-ing), Low German -ing ‎(-ing), German -ung ‎(-ing), Swedish -ing ‎(-ing), Icelandic -ing ‎(-ing).

SuffixEdit

-ing

  1. Used to form gerunds, a type of verbal nouns, from verbs.
    the making of the film; the forging of the sword took several hours of planning, preparation, and metalwork
  2. Used to form uncountable nouns from various parts of speech denoting materials or systems of objects considered collectively.
    Roofing is a material that covers a roof.
    Piping is a system of pipes considered collectively.
Usage notesEdit
  • If the suffix is applied to a word ending in an voiceless stop such as /p/, /t/, or /k/ (which are normally aspirated in English), the stops are unaspirated.
  • Compare -tion, which can be applied to some (Latinate) verbs with similar meaning: the activating of the weapon must be stopped vs the activation of the weapon.
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

The translations below are a guide only. See individual words for precise translations.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle English -inge, -ynge, alteration of earlier -inde, -ende, -and (see -and), from Old English -ende ‎(present participle ending), from Proto-Germanic *-andz ‎(present participle ending), from Proto-Indo-European *-nt-. Cognate with Dutch -end, German -end, Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐌳 ‎(-and), Latin -ans, -ant-, Ancient Greek -ον ‎(-on), Sanskrit -अन्त् ‎(-ant). More at -and.

SuffixEdit

-ing

  1. Used to form present participles of verbs.
    Rolling stones gather no moss.
    You are making a mess.
    • a. 2001, Brian Hall, “Beej's Guide to Network Programming”, “Using Internet Sockets”
      If you are connect()ing to a remote machine [] you can simply call connect(), it'll check to see if the socket is unworthy, and will bind() it to an unused local port if necessary.
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz. Akin to Old Norse -ingr, Gothic -𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍃 ‎(-iggs).

SuffixEdit

-ing

  1. Forming derivative nouns (originally masculine), with the senseson of, belonging to’, as patronymics or diminutives. No longer productive in either sense.
    Browning, Channing, Ewing
    bunting
    shilling
    farthing
  2. Having a specifed quality, characteristic, or nature; of the kind of
    sweeting
    whiting
    gelding
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Allan Metcalf, How We Talk: American Regional English, Houghton Mifflin, Boston: 2000, p 143

DanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse -ingr, -angr, -ungr.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ing, -ning

  1. added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process, the result of or the subject performing such action
  2. designate a person of a certain origin or with certain qualities

Usage notesEdit

Nouns are in the common gender, and inflected -(n)ing -en, -er, -erne.

SynonymsEdit

  • (added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process): -else, -tion

Derived termsEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Dutch -inge, from Old Dutch -unga, -onga, from Proto-Germanic *-ungō.

SuffixEdit

-ing f ‎(plural -ingen, diminutive -inkje or -ingetje)

  1. Creates action nouns referring to the performance a verb, or the result thereof.
Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Dutch -inc, from Old Dutch -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

-ing m

  1. (no longer productive) Forms nouns for a person originating from a place or family.
Usage notesEdit

The suffix is no longer productive and is not generally recognised in this meaning. It is found in many place names and surnames, however.


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From English.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /iŋ/, /iŋɡ/, /iɲ/

SuffixEdit

-ing

  1. suffix used to form nouns

Usage notesEdit

  • Most terms suffixed with -ing are borrowed directly from English, but some are not (surbooking, relooking).


FuyugEdit

NounEdit

-ing

  1. plural marker
    amul ‎(woman) : amuling ‎(women)

ReferencesEdit

  • Robert L. Bradshaw, Fuyug grammar sketch (2007)

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ing

  1. (frequentative suffix) Added to a verb to form a verb denoting repetitive action.
    kering ‎(to circulate, orbit)

Usage notesEdit

  • (frequentative suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ong is added to back vowel words
    hajol ‎(to bend) → hajlong ‎(to bow repetitively)
    -eng is added to unrounded front vowel words
    derül ‎(to clear up) → dereng ‎(to dawn; to appear vaguely)
    -öng is added to rounded front vowel words
    őrül ‎(to go insane) → őrjöng ‎(to be wild, furious, raging)
    düh ‎(fury, rage) → dühöng ‎(to be in a raging temper)
    -ang is added to back vowel words (rare)
    lappang ‎(to lurk)
    -ing is added to front vowel words (rare)
    kering ‎(to circulate, orbit)

Derived termsEdit


See alsoEdit


Low GermanEdit

SuffixEdit

-ing

  • (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Used to form diminutives

Usage notesEdit

  • Nouns derived with this suffix are neuters and their plural end in -ings.
  • The suffix can not only be added to nouns, but also to other parts of speech like adverbs.

Derved termsEdit

See alsoEdit


Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m, -ing f

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ing m, f or m (see below)

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing.
    Han var lei av masing.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Usage notesEdit

The gender is usually m or f (in Bokmål) if the word ended in -ing in Old Norse and m if it ended in -ingr or -ingi. Living things like islending ‎(Icelander) and dumming ‎(idiot) are usually m whilst inanimate things like stråling ‎(radiation) and eting ‎(the act of eating) usually are m, f.

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m, -ing f

SuffixEdit

-ing f or m (see below)

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing.

Usage notesEdit

The gender is usually f (in Nynorsk) if the word ended in -ing in Old Norse and m if it ended in -ingr or -ingi. Living things like islending ‎(Icelander) and dumming ‎(idiot) are usually m whilst inanimate things like stråling ‎(radiation) and eting ‎(the act of eating) usually are f.

Derived termsEdit

See Bokmål above.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit


Old EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Variant of -ung.

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

-ing f

  1. Forming nouns from verbs, indicating action, process or material.

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

SuffixEdit

-ing m

  1. Forming derivatives of masculine nouns with sense of ‘belonging to, son of’.

SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse ingr, lingr, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

SuffixEdit

-ing

  1. -ing; making nouns. See also -ning.

Derived termsEdit



UzbekEdit

PronunciationEdit

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

EtymologyEdit

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

SuffixEdit

-ing ‎(-инг)

  1. second-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as sening ‎(your) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobing.‎ ― This is your book.

Usage notesEdit

When directly addressing another person, it is polite to use the plural -ingiz or -ngiz forms.

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