English edit

 
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Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, -ung (-ing, suffix forming nouns from verbs), from Proto-West Germanic *-ingu, *-ungu, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō. Cognate with Saterland Frisian -enge (-ing), West Frisian -ing (-ing), Dutch -ing (-ing), Low German -ing, -ink (-ing), German -ung (-ing), Danish -ing (-ing), Swedish -ing (-ing), Icelandic -ing (-ing).

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. Used to form nouns or noun-like words (or elements of noun phrases) from verbs, denoting the act of doing something, an action, or the embodiment of an action.
    1. As true nouns.
      My hearing is not good.
      I have had several meetings with him.
    2. As gerunds.
      Smoking is bad for your health.
      She has a habit of sleeping late.
      I like meeting people.
  2. Used to form nouns denoting materials or systems of objects which are used or employed in an action, or considered collectively.
    Roofing is material that is used to roof.
    Clothing is material with which one is clothed.
    The piping is a system of pipes considered collectively.
Usage notes edit

Compare -tion, which can be applied to some (Latinate) nouns with almost the same meaning:

the activating of the weapon must be stopped
the act of activating the weapon must be stopped
the activation of the weapon must be stopped

In the first and third phrases the words in bold are nouns, while in the second phrase the word in bold is a gerund and the noun is act, cognate with action.

There was formerly a tendency for the final vowel of a word to contract when this suffix was added; hence carrying /ˈkæɹ(j)ɪŋ/, /ˈkæɹ(j)ɪn/, following /ˈfɒlwɪŋ/, /ˈfɒlwɪn/, but analogy has usually now resulted in restoration of the full form (e.g. /ˈkæɹi.ɪŋ/, /ˈfɒloʊ.ɪn/). [3] The same kind of analogy has resulted in pronunciations of bottling such as /ˈbɒtəlɪŋ/, /ˈbɒtəlɪn/ (for earlier /ˈbɒtlɪŋ/, /ˈbɒtlɪn/).

Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

The translations below are a guide only. See individual words for precise translations.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English -inge, -ynge, alteration of earlier -inde, -ende, -and (see -and), from Old English -ende (present participle ending), from Proto-West Germanic *-andī, from Proto-Germanic *-andz (present participle ending), from Proto-Indo-European *-onts.

Cognate with West Frisian -end, Dutch -end, German -end, Swedish -and, Icelandic -andi, Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐌳𐍃 (-ands), -𐍉𐌽𐌳𐍃 (-ōnds), Latin -ans, -ant-, Ancient Greek -ων (-ōn), Sanskrit -अन्त् (-ant). More at -and.

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. Used to form present participles of verbs.
    Rolling stones gather no moss.
    You are making a mess.
    • a. 2001, Brian Hall, “Beej's Guide to Network Programming”, “Using Internet Sockets”
      If you are connect()ing to a remote machine [] you can simply call connect(), it'll check to see if the socket is unworthy, and will bind() it to an unused local port if necessary.
Translations edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, from Proto-West Germanic *-ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz. Akin to Old Norse -ingr.

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. (no longer productive) Forming derivative nouns (originally masculine), with the senseson of, belonging to’, as in placenames, patronymics or diminutives; -ite.
    Middle English *bunt + ‎-ing → ‎bunting
    skill + ‎-ing → ‎shilling
    fourth + ‎-ing → ‎farthing
  2. Forming nouns having a specified quality, characteristic, or nature; of the kind of
    sweet + ‎-ing → ‎sweeting
    white + ‎-ing → ‎whiting
    geld + ‎-ing → ‎gelding
Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Orton, H. et al., The Linguistic Atlas of England, Croom Helm, London: 1978.
  2. ^ Allan Metcalf, How We Talk: American Regional English, Houghton Mifflin, Boston: 2000, p 143
  3. ^ Jespersen, Otto (1909) A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles (Sammlung germanischer Elementar- und Handbücher; 9)‎[1], volume I: Sounds and Spellings, London: George Allen & Unwin, published 1961, § 9.812, page 275.

Anagrams edit

Danish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse -ing, -ung, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ing c (singular definite -ingen, plural indefinite -inger)

  1. added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process, the result of or the subject performing such action
  2. designate a person of a certain origin or with certain qualities

Declension edit

Synonyms edit

  • (added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process): -else, -tion

Derived terms edit

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Dutch -inge, from Old Dutch -inga, -unga, -onga, from Proto-West Germanic *-ingu, *-ungu, from Proto-Germanic *-ungō.

Suffix edit

-ing f (plural -ingen, diminutive -inkje or -ingetje)

  1. Creates action nouns referring to the performance of a verb, or the result thereof.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Dutch -inc, from Old Dutch -ing, from Proto-West Germanic *-ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-ing m

  1. (no longer productive) Forms nouns for a person originating from a place or family.
Usage notes edit

The suffix is no longer productive and is not generally recognised in this meaning. It is found in many place names and surnames, however.

French edit

Etymology edit

From English -ing.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ing m (plural -ings)

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs

Usage notes edit

  • Most terms suffixed with -ing are borrowed directly from English, but some are not (e.g., surbooking, relooking).

Fuyug edit

Noun edit

-ing

  1. plural marker
    amul (woman) : amuling (women)

References edit

  • Robert L. Bradshaw, Fuyug grammar sketch (2007)

German edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from English -ing. Doublet of native -ung.

Suffix edit

-ing n (genitive -ings, plural -ings)

  1. (in English borrowings) -ing
  2. (productive, colloquial, humorous) Used to form verbal nouns which jocularly imply that something is a sport, trend, or fashionable concept.
    Extremsparingextreme saving: saving money as a sport
    Cloud-Abwaschingcloud dish washing: dish washing following the cloud principle
    • 2001, Ulrich Busse, Typen von Anglizismen, in: Gerhard von Stickel (ed.), Neues und Fremdes im deutschen Wortschatz, De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, p. 131-155 [only a mentioning]
      Typen von Anglizismen: von der heilago geist bis Extremsparing – aufgezeigt anhand ausgewählter lexikographischer Kategorisierungen.
      Types of anglicisms: from der heilago geist [Old High German for “the Holy Spirit”] to extreme saving – illustrated by means of selected lexicographic categorisations.
    • 2012, Hans Zippert, “Wir verlagern das ganze Leben in die Internetwolke”, in Website of Die Welt:
      Beim Cloud-Abwasching wird das schmutzige Geschirr einfach ausgelagert, damit es keinen Speicherplatz in der Spüle wegnimmt und jeder darauf zugreifen kann, der die Lizenz zum Abwasch hat.
      In cloud dish washing, the dirty crockery is simply swapped out, so it doesn’t take up any memory in the kitchen sink and everybody who has a wash-up licence can access it.

Usage notes edit

  • Productive use is chiefly restricted to ad-hoc formations (such as the two examples above).

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. (frequentative suffix) Added to a verb or to an onomatopoeic stem to form a verb denoting repetitive action.
    kering (to circulate, orbit)

Usage notes edit

  • (frequentative suffix) Variants:
    -ong is added to back-vowel words
    hajol (to bend) + ‎-ing → ‎hajlong (to bow repetitively)
    -eng is added to unrounded front-vowel words
    derül (to clear up) + ‎-ing → ‎dereng (to dawn; to appear vaguely)
    -öng is added to rounded front-vowel words
    őrül (to go insane) + ‎-ing → ‎őrjöng (to be wild, furious, raging)
    düh (fury, rage) + ‎-ing → ‎dühöng (to be in a raging temper)
    -ang is added to back-vowel words (rare)
    lappang (to lurk)
    -ing is added to front-vowel words (rare)
    kering (to circulate, orbit)

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

Icelandic edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Suffix edit

-ing f

  1. -ing; Indicates an action performed by a verb.

Derived terms edit

Low German edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Low German -inc, from Old Saxon -ing, from Proto-West Germanic *-ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Used to form diminutives.

Usage notes edit

  • Nouns derived with this suffix are neuters and their plural end in -ings.
  • The suffix can not only be added to nouns, but also to other parts of speech like adverbs.

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  • Carl Friedrich Müller, Zur Sprache Fritz Reuters: ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der mecklenburgischen Mundart, Leipzig: Max Hesse Verlag, 1902, pp. 41-2, 47.

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old English -ing, -ung, from Proto-West Germanic *-ungu, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (mainly Early ME) IPA(key): /unɡ/, [uŋɡ]
  • IPA(key): /inɡ/, [iŋɡ]

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. Forms gerunds from verbs, typically referring to the process of performing the verb, but also referring to the effect of the verb, what the verb affects, the capability or permission of performing the verb, or that which performs the verb.
  2. Forms collective nouns from verbs meaning "to utilise (a given thing)".
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • English: -ing, -in', -in
  • Scots: -in, -in', -ing
References edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old English -ing, from Proto-West Germanic *-ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. Forms diminutives; these can be either affective or insulting.
  2. (marginally productive) Forms nouns meaning "son of".
Descendants edit
References edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m, -ing f, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ing m or f or m (see below)

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing.
    Han var lei av masing.He was tired of nagging
  2. Used to form demonyms.
    Færøyene + ‎-ing → ‎færøying

Usage notes edit

The gender is usually m or f (in Bokmål) if the word ended in -ing in Old Norse and m if it ended in -ingr or -ingi. Living things like islending (Icelander) and dumming (idiot) are usually m whilst inanimate things like stråling (radiation) and eting (the act of eating) usually are m or f.

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse -ing f.

Suffix edit

-ing f

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ing.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m.

Suffix edit

-ing m

  1. Used to form demonyms.
    Færøyane + ‎-ing → ‎færøying

See also edit

References edit

Ojibwe edit

Final edit

-ing

  1. used in certain adverbs

Derived terms edit

References edit

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. A suffix denoting the locative form of a noun

See also edit

Old English edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Variant of -ung.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-ing f

  1. Forming nouns from verbs, indicating action, process or material.
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-West Germanic *-ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz.

Suffix edit

-ing m

  1. Forming derivatives of nouns with sense of ‘belonging to, son of’.
Derived terms edit

Old Norse edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Suffix edit

-ing f

  1. Forms gerund nouns from verbs

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

See also edit

Old Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse -ing, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. Forms gerund nouns from verbs

Declension edit

Descendants edit

Ottawa edit

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. locative

References edit

Jerry Randolph Valentine (2001) Nishnaabemwin Reference Grammar, University of Toronto, page 194

Scots edit

Suffix edit

-ing

  1. Alternative form of -in (ing)

Spanish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Unadapted borrowing from English -ing.

Suffix edit

-ing m (noun-forming suffix, plural -ings)

  1. forms verbal nouns from verbs

Usage notes edit

  • Most terms suffixed with -ing are borrowed directly from English, but some are not (e.g., footing (pseudo-anglicism), puenting, edredoning).

Usage notes edit

According to Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) prescriptions, unadapted foreign words should be written in italics in a text printed in roman type, and vice versa, and in quotation marks in a manuscript text or when italics are not available. In practice, this RAE prescription is not always followed.

Derived terms edit

Swedish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Swedish -ing, -ung, from Old Norse -ing, -ung, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō. Cognate to German -ung.

Suffix edit

-ing c or f

  1. Used to form verbal nouns from verbs; -ation.
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Swedish -inger, from Old Norse -ingr, from Proto-Germanic *-ingaz. Cognate with Icelandic -ingur, English -ing (derivative suffix).

Suffix edit

-ing c or m

  1. (rarely productive) added to a noun stem, causing i-mutation (if applicable), forming a noun denoting an inhabitant or original of a particular place, a descendant of a person, etc.; -er, -ite. See also -ling.
    Skåne (Scania) + ‎-ing → ‎skåning (a Scanian)
    Island (Iceland) + ‎-ing → ‎islänning (an Icelander)
  2. (rarely productive) diminutive suffix
    get (goat) + ‎-ing → ‎geting (a wasp)
    släkt ((extended) family) + ‎-ing → ‎släkting (a relative)
    galen (crazy) + ‎-ing → ‎galning (a crazy person, lunatic, madman)
Derived terms edit

Anagrams edit

Tagalog edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -ngfor roots ending in vowels

Etymology edit

Possibly from Spanish -ín. Compare tsikiting with Spanish chiquitín and list of Derived terms.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ing (proper noun-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ᜒᜅ᜔)

  1. diminutive suffix, used to form diminutives ending in consonants, especially given names, often one already shortened or with a diminutive suffix.

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Uzbek edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix edit

postconsonantal -ing
postvocalic -ng

-ing (-инг)

  1. second-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as sening (your) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobing.This is your book.

Usage notes edit

When directly addressing another person, it is polite to use the plural -ingiz or -ngiz forms.