Choctaw edit

Suffix edit

-pa

  1. (demonstrative) this, these

See also edit

  • -ma (that)

Classical Nahuatl edit

Etymology 1 edit

Related to the locative suffix -pan.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-pa

  1. times; forms adverbial numerals.
    • 1571, Alonso de Molina, Vocabulario en lengua castellana y mexicana y mexicana y castellana, f. 120v:
      ¶Para dezir vna vez, foz vezes, tres vezes . &c. dizen deſta manera. / ¶Vnavez. ceppa. / Dosvezes. oppa. / Tres vezes. yexpa. / […] / ¶Y aſsi de todos los otros numeros menores y / mayores, poniendo alcabo eſta ſyllaba,pa.
      To say once, twice, thrice, etc. they say in the following manner: Once. ceppa. / Twice. oppa. / Thrice. yexpa. / […] / And so on for all the other numbers, lesser and greater, placing at the end this syllable: pa.
    ēyi (three)ēxpa (thrice)
    mācuilli (five)mācuilpa (five times)
    chicōme (seven)chicōppa (seven times)
Usage notes edit

The consonantal sound of the syllable of the base numeral adjacent to -pa undergoes regressive assimilation (where a consonantal sound assimilates into the one that follows it) in some situations:

  • -m becomes p:
    (one) —(combining form cen-, and cem- before p and vowels) → ceppa (once)
    ōme (two) —(combining form ōn-, and ōm- before p and vowels) → ōppa (twice)
    chicōme (seven) —(derived from ōme) → chicōppa (seven times)
  • -uh becomes p:
    nāhui (four) —(combining form nāuh-) → nāppa (four times)
    chiucnāhui (nine) —(derived from nāhui) → chiucnāppa (nine times)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-pa

  1. directions; Signifies direction or movement relative to an object, both from and to depending on directional context or affixes on the verb.
    Mēxihco (Mexico, Mexico City)Mēxihcopa (to Mexico, from Mexico)
    cān (where)cāmpa (where to)
    -huīc (facing)-pahuīc (in the direction of)
Usage notes edit

Unlike relational suffixes such as -tlan, -pan, or -tech, this suffix cannot attach to possessive prefixes to form relations. However, it can combine with these suffixes on both nouns and possessives, forming directional suffixes with specific directions.

Derived terms edit

Finnish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-pa (clitic) (see it for more).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /pɑ/, [pɑ̝]
  • IPA(key): /pːɑ/, [pːɑ̝] (geminated especially after imperatives as used in 2, 4, 7)

Particle edit

-pa (front vowel harmony variant -pä, linguistic notation -pA) (enclitic particle)

  1. Expresses that the speaker is surprised at or astonished by something.
    Tuollapa on paljon kukkia!
    Ooh lots of flowers are there!
    Oletpa sinä kaunis!
    How beautiful you are!
  2. please, kindly (appended to an imperative verb form in order to soften the command or request or turn it into a suggestion, or passive to form an urging hortative)
    Korjaapa lautaset pois pöydästä.
    Please, clear the plates off the table.
    Tee nämä tehtävät.
    Kindly do these tasks.
    Tehdään ne sitten.
    Let's do them then.
    Kokeilkaapa tätä mallia.
    Give this model a try.
    (informal usage)
    Sitä sanotaan että matematiikka on helppoa, vaan yrittäkää ymmärtää sitä itse!
    They say that maths is easy, yet you try understand it yourself!
  3. Expresses admission or concession, possibly in a way that expresses defeat.
    Ei siinä paljoa ollut tehtävissä.
    Well, it's not like there was much that could have been done.
    Tuotapa en ollut tullut ajatelleeksi.
    Well, I hadn't thought of that.
  4. if you like (used in giving a non-concrete instruction)
    Mutta kuvittelepa maailma, jossa ei olisi ilmastonmuutosta.
    But imagine, if you like, a world where climate change did not exist.
  5. Expresses that the speaker is proud of something, also to boast or brag about something.
    Meidän koira osaa laulaa!
    Well, our dog can sing!
  6. (informal) Used to narrate impulsive actions; when describing the speaker's own actions, expresses that the speaker decided to do the action at the referred time; when describing the (past) actions of the person being addressed, implies that the speaker is looking for an explanation.
    Taidanpa lähteä kotiin.
    I think I'll go home.
    Taisitpa sitten lähteä kotiin.
    So you chose to go home, huh.
  7. When appended to a second-person imperative with the particle -s, gives the command or request a slightly more persuasive or inspiring tone.
    Laitapas lautaset pöytään.
    Hey, go put the plates on the table.
    Siistis huoneesi.
    Hey, go straighten up your room.
  8. (with conditional) I wish (expresses the speaker's desire for something that is not true)
    Olisinpa tarttunut tilaisuuteen.
    I wish I had seized that opportunity.
    Oispa kaljaa.
    Wish I had some beer.
  9. Adds a general emphatic tone, the exact meaning of which depends on the tone of voice.
    Olinpa ajattelematon.
    How inconsiderate of me.
    Sanonpahan vaan!
    Just saying!
  10. (possibly childish) Expresses disagreement or objection (by arguing) in the form of an exclamation.
    Tein(s)!
    Yes I did! (as a response to someone saying the speaker did not do their homework, for example)
  11. whether (no matter whether or not), no matter (if, what)
    Se sinun pitää tehdä, pidät siitä tai et.
    You have to do it, whether you like it or not.
  12. With interrogatives and conditional verbs, used to form self-deprecating, often rhetorical questions.
    Kukapa minun kanssa haluaisi muutenkaan olla.
    I mean, who would want to be with me anyway.
Usage notes edit
  • (when surprised or astonished; when proud or boasting): By changing the tone of voice, the sentences can be turned into ironic statements.
  • As seen above, this particle is used in subjective impressions or opinions or to soften commands and thus it is used especially in spoken language. It can, depending on the context, have several meanings that, in English, can usually be expressed only by accentuating the words differently or by adding extra words.
  • Note also that this particle is always appended to the first or the second word of the clause.
  • In everyday speech, this particle may be used even when there is no intention to give the message a nuance, in which case the particle does not affect the meaning.
  • When added to words ending in -n, the pronunciation usually shifts to -m- (-np- > -mp- is a common sandhi phenomenon), such as kunpa being pronounced kumpa. In informal settings, the word may also be spelled with mp to reflect this, but that is considered nonstandard.
Synonyms edit
  • (when surprised at something, stronger than -pa) -han
Derived terms edit

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

The original strong grade of the present active participle suffix -va.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-pa (front vowel harmony variant -pä, linguistic notation -pA) (rare)

  1. Forms adjectives or nouns of a very limited amount of verbs.
    käydä (to be suitable) + ‎-pa → ‎käypä (current, going; valid; popular; suitable, fitting) (doublet of käyvä (that which or who suits, goes))
    syödä (to eat) + ‎-pa → ‎syöpä (cancer) (doublet of syövä (that which or who eats))
    juoda (to drink) + ‎-pa → ‎juopa (streak) (doublet of juova (that which or who drinks))
    suoda (to give, allow, permit, grant) + ‎-pa → ‎-suopa (quality of having an intent or will towards others, in pahansuopa (malevolent)) (doublet of suova (that which or who allows or permits))
Usage notes edit
  • Historically, this suffix is the older form of the active present participle suffix -va/-vä after stressed syllables, though no longer used in that function in standard Finnish. Some words have preserved the original suffix due to having changed their meaning. Therefore, e.g. käypä is originally the active present participle of käydä, which was later replaced by käyvä.
Derived terms edit

Anagrams edit

Garo edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-pa

  1. male human

Derived terms edit

Ingrian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-pa. Cognates include Finnish -pa.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

-pa (front vowel variant -pä)

  1. Expresses surprise or disappointment.
  2. Expresses admission or concession.
    • 1937, N. A. Iljin, Lukukirja: Inkeroisia alkușkouluja vart (kolmas osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 108:
      Vaik täs maailmaas, vaikkapa tunnin, vaik yhen tunnin olis elänt, kuin pittää,
      If only in this world, if only for an hour, if only for one hour she'd live, as needed,

References edit

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 369

Mecayapan Nahuatl edit

Suffix edit

-pa

  1. Forms onomatopoeic verbs.

Derived terms edit

Pitjantjatjara edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-pa

  1. Epenthetic suffix added when the word would otherwise end in a consonant

Usage notes edit

  • This suffix is dropped whenever another suffix is appended to the word, e.g. ilytjanpa (flesh)ilytjantjara (having flesh)

Derived terms edit

Quechua edit

Not to be confused with -paq, -pas, or -spa

Suffix edit

-pa

  1. Genitive marker following consonants. See also: -p
    qampa sutiyki ("your name")
  2. Indicates a repetitive action. Once more. See also: -paya
    qillqay (to write)qillqapay (to rewrite)
    waqtay (to beat)waqtapay (to beat into pieces)