per- -an

IndonesianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Malay per- -an, from Classical Malay per- -an, from Proto-Austronesian [Term?].

PronunciationEdit

CircumfixEdit

per- -an

  1. -hood; appended to a noun to form a new noun denoting a group sharing a specified condition or state.
    budak (slave) → ‎perbudakan (slavehood)
    saudara (sibling) → ‎persaudaraan (brotherhood)
  2. -ship; appended to a noun to form a new noun denoting a property or state of being, time spent in a role, or a specialised union.
    teman (friend) → ‎pertemanan (frienship)
  3. having to do with [base], affairs dealing with [base]
    buruh (worker) → ‎perburuhan (labour)
    kebun (garden) → ‎perkebunan (horticulture)
    rumah (house) → ‎perumahan (housing)
    sekutu (ally) → ‎persekutuan (alliance)
    undang-undang (law) → ‎perundang-undangan (legislation)
  4. a collection of [base]
    air (water) → ‎perairan (area of water)
    alat (tool) → ‎peralatan (equipment)
    bukit (hill) → ‎perbukitan (hill tract)
    buruh (worker) → ‎perburuhan (workforce)
    hotel (hotel) → ‎perhotelan (hotel)
    kebun (garden) → ‎perkebunan (plantation)
    muka (surface, literally face) → ‎permukaan (surface)
    rumah (house) → ‎perumahan (housing)
  5. the process or result of the action referred to by the verb [base]
    ajar (to teach) → ‎pelajaran (lesson)
    gerak (to move) → ‎pergerakan (movement)
    kerja (to work) → ‎pekerjaan (work)
  6. the act of doing what the verb [base]
    atur (to regulate) → ‎peraturan (regulation)
    coba (to try) → ‎percobaan (attempt, experiment)
    ingat (to remember) → ‎peringatan (warning)
    tolong (to help) → ‎pertolongan (help, assistance)
  7. the place where the action of the verb [base]
    cetak (to print) → ‎percetakan (printing press)
    judi (to gamble) → ‎perjudian (gambling den)
  8. (unproductive) road intersection
    tiga (three) → ‎pertigaan (three-way intersection)
    empat (four) → ‎perempatan (crossroad)
    lima (five) → ‎perlimaan (five-way intersection)

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (2017) Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia [Standard Grammar of Indonesian Language]‎[1] (in Indonesian), 4 edition, Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, →ISBN
  • James N. Sneddon (2010) Indonesian : a comprehensive grammar, 2 edition, London: Roultedge, →ISBN, OCLC 564132877