English

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Etymology 1

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Borrowed from Latin per and per-.

Prefix

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per-

  1. (non-productive) In verbs: denoting the sense "through", as in perforate.
  2. (non-productive) In verbs: denoting the sense "thoroughly", as in perfect.
  3. (non-productive) In verbs: denoting the sense "to destruction", as in pervert.
  4. (non-productive) In adjectives and adverbs: denoting the sense "extremely", as in perfervid.
  5. (chemistry) Forming nouns and adjectives denoting the maximum proportion of one element in a compound, as in peroxide.
  6. (chemistry) Added to the name of an element in a polyatomic ion to denote the number of atoms of that element (usually four).
Synonyms
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Borrowed from Old French per (modern French par).

Prefix

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per-

  1. (non-productive) Denoting the sense "by" or "per", as in perchance or perhaps.

Anagrams

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Asturian

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Etymology

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From Latin per-.

Prefix

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per-

  1. used to make superlatives of adjectives and adverbs
    perguapu
    very beautiful
    perblancu
    very white
    perbién
    very well
    perlloñe
    very far

See also

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Esperanto

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Etymology

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Back-formation from per.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [per]
  • Hyphenation: per

Prefix

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per-

  1. denotes that the action expressed by the root becomes a means to attain a goal
    per- + ‎labori (to work) → ‎perlabori (to earn)
    per- + ‎ludi (to play) → ‎perludi (to win)
    per- + ‎flati (to flatter) → ‎perflati (to coax)

Derived terms

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French

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Etymology

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From Latin per-.

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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per-

  1. per-

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Hungarian

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Etymology

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From Latin per (through).[1]

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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per-

  1. (chemistry) per-

Derived terms

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References

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  1. ^ Tótfalusi, István. Idegenszó-tár: Idegen szavak értelmező és etimológiai szótára (’A Storehouse of Foreign Words: an explanatory and etymological dictionary of foreign words’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN

Indonesian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Malay per-, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *paʀ. Cognate with Tagalog pag-.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /pər-/
  • Hyphenation: pêr

Prefix

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per-

  1. causative voice imperative mood intransitive verb prefix of a transitive verb
    per- + ‎buat (to do [something]) → ‎perbuat (do [something])
  2. causative voice imperative mood intransitive verb prefix of an adjective
    per- + ‎besar (big) → ‎perbesar (make bigger something big)
  3. imperative mood transitive verb of a noun: treat the object as [base], take the object as [base]
    per- + ‎istri (wife) → ‎peristri (take as wife, marry)
  4. nominal patient used to form nouns from verbs conjugated with ber-
    per- + ‎ajar (to teach) → ‎pelajar (learner)
    per- + ‎kerja (to work) → ‎pekerja (worker)
  5. denominator of a fraction
    per- + ‎dua (two) → ‎perdua

Usage notes

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  • When this prefix is combined with the prefixes meng-, di-, ter-, and ke-, the imperative aspect is lost
  • pe- is used in word with initial /r/ or word with final /-ər.C-/ in first syllable
    • However, some words that don't have /-ər.C-/ used this suffix inconsistently (per- + desa + -an > pedesaan).
  • pel- is only used in the words ajar and unjur together with their derivatives.

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Latin

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Etymology

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From Proto-Italic *peri-. Related to per (through).

Prefix

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per-

  1. Used to make adjectives or verbs that are "very" something.
    magnus (great, large)permagnus (very great, very large)
    multī (many)permultī (very many)
  2. Used to form verbs that are intensive or completive, conveying the idea of doing something all the way through or entirely.

Derived terms

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See also

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Malay

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Etymology

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From Proto-Austronesian *paR- (divide into x (x = numeral)).

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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per- (Jawi spelling ڤر)

  1. abstraction, place, goal, result
    PerlawananMatch (game)
  2. divided by X numeral
    Satu perduaOne divided by two
  3. each, per
    Synonyms: tiap-tiap, se-
    40 km per jam40 km per hour

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Indonesian: per-

Further reading

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  • per” in Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu | Malay Literary Reference Centre, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2017.
  • Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen; et al. (2023) “*paR-₂”, in the CLDF dataset from The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary (2010–), →DOI

Spanish

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Prefix

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per-

  1. per-

Derived terms

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Further reading

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