spogulis on Latvian Wikipedia


From Proto-Baltic *speng-, *spang- (> *spuog-, +‎ -ulis), from Proto-Indo-European *sp(ʰ)eng(to shine). Originally a dialectal word with many variant forms, meaning “shine, gloss, sheen.” A. Kronvalds introduced it in the literary language in the 1860s, first to mean “shiny surface (of water)” (ūdens-spogulis), from which it spread to its other current meanings (compare German Wasserspiegel). The word really entered the literary language after A. Pumpurs included it in his epic poem Lāčplēsis (“Bear-slayer”). It has mostly replaced a former German borrowing spieģelis.[1]


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spogulis m (2nd declension)

  1. mirror (smooth surface that reflects light so as to produce an image of what is in front of it)
    stikla, metāla spogulis‎ ― glass, metal mirror
    'sienas, kabatas, galda spogulis‎ ― wall, pocket, table mirror
    apskatīt sevi spogulī‎ ― to look at oneself in the mirror
    viņa ķemmē matus un skatās spogulī‎ ― she combs her hair and looks in the mirror
    greizais spogulis‎ ― twisted, distorting mirror (i.e., one which gives a wrong image)
  2. calm water surface
    ezera, upes spogulis‎ ― lake, river surface
  3. (optics) a reflective surface as an optical system
    spoguļa formula‎ ― mirror formula
    spoguļa fokuss‎ ― mirror focus
    spoguļa lineārais palielinājums‎ ― mirror linear increase
  4. (figuratively) something that reflects or shows something (a quality, a feature, etc.)
    prese ir sabiedriskās domas spogulis‎ ― the press is a mirror of public opinion
    acis ir cilvēka dvēseles spogulis‎ ― the eyes are the mirror of a person's soul
  5. an area of an animal's body that is different from its surroundings and characterizes the animal
    mugurpusē ap asti stirnai ir spilgti balts laukums, tā sauktais “spogulis‎ ― back around the tail of the roe deer is a bright white spot, the so-called “mirror




  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “spogulis”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7