From Middle French sisteme, systeme (modern French système (“system”)), or directly from its etymon Late Latin systēma (“harmony; musical scale; set of celestial objects; set of troops; system”), from Ancient Greek σύστημα (sústēma, “musical scale; organized body; whole made of several parts or members”), from σῠν- (sun-, “with, together”) + ἵστημι (hístēmi, “to stand”) (from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂- (“to stand (up)”)) + -μᾰ (-ma, suffix denoting result). The English word is cognate with Dutch systema, German System, Italian sistema, Portuguese sistema, Spanish sistema.
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈsɪstəm/
- (General American) enPR: sĭsʹtəm, IPA(key): /ˈsɪstəm/
Audio (GA) (file) Audio (AU) (file)
- Rhymes: -ɪstəm
- Hyphenation: sys‧tem
system (plural systems)
- A collection of organized things; a whole composed of relationships among its members. [from early 17th c.]
- Synonyms: arrangement, complex, composition, organization, set up, structure
- There are eight planets in the solar system.
- 1842, Letitia Elizabeth Landon, Lady Anne Granard, volume 1, page 112:
- Every age has its characteristic, and our present one is not behind its predecessors in that respect; it is the age of systems, every system enforced by a treatise. The politician who opposes the corn-laws and advocates free trade, does so on a system, which, as soon as it begins to work, will set the civilized world to rights.
- , J[ames] A[lexander] Hamilton, “Stave”, in A New Musical Grammar, in Three Parts: viz. Notation; Harmony and Counterpoint; Rhythm or Melody, 4th edition, London: Published only by Robert Cocks and Co. […]; sold also by Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. […], OCLC 163067787, part I (Notation), page 23:
- The bass and treble clefs combined, include all the sounds belonging to our musical system, as they appear on a 6½-octave pianoforte, extending from C C C in the bass to F in altissimo.
- 2013 May–June, Charles T. Ambrose, “Alzheimer’s Disease: The Great Morbidity of the 21st Century”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3, archived from the original on 24 April 2013, page 200:
- Similar studies of rats have employed four different intracranial resorbable, slow sustained release systems—surgical foam, a thermal gel depot, a microcapsule or biodegradable polymer beads.
- (derogatory) Preceded by the word the: the mainstream culture, controlled by the elites or government of a state, or a combination of them, seen as oppressive to the individual.
- (computing) A set of hardware and software operating in a computer.
- 2019 February 3, “UN Study: China, US, Japan Lead World AI Development”, in Voice of America, archived from the original on 7 February 2019:
- WIPO [the World Intellectual Property Organization] reported that China had 17 of the top 20 academic organizations filing for AI-related patents. It noted China was especially strong in the fast-growing area of "deep learning." This is a machine learning method that includes speech and facial recognition systems.
- (mathematics) A set of equations involving the same variables, which are to be solved simultaneously.
- 2017, Ken Levasseur; Al Doerr, “More Matrix Algebra”, in Applied Discrete Structures – Part 2: Algebraic Structures: Version 3.3, [Morrisville, N.C.]: Lulu.com, →ISBN, section 12.1.1 (Solutions), page 59:
- The method of solving systems of equations by matrices that we will look at is based on procedures involving equations that we are familiar with from previous mathematics courses. The main idea is to reduce a given system of equations to another simpler system that has the same solutions.
- (music) A set of staves linked by a brace that indicate instruments or sounds that are to be played simultaneously.
- 2015, Meinhard Müller, “Music Representations”, in Fundamentals of Music Processing: Audio, Analysis, Algorithms, Applications, Cham, Switzerland; Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing, DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-21945-5, →ISBN, section 1.1.2 (Western Music Notation), page 8:
- To notate music that is played on a piano or is played by different musicians on various instruments, one often uses several staves to notate the various musical voices. A single vertical line drawn to the left of multiple staves creates a staff system, which indicates that the music on all staves is to be played simultaneously. A bracket is an additional vertically aligned symbol joining staves. This symbol shows groupings of instruments that function as a unit, such as the string section of an orchestra […].
- (physiology) A set of body organs having a particular function.
- the digestive system the nervous system
- 1995, Terence J. Dawson, “Living in the Environment – Feeding”, in Kangaroos: Biology of the Largest Marsupials, Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, published 1998, →ISBN, page 102:
- Animals have evolved a variety of digestive systems to utilise fibre. The kangaroos have evolved a digestive system that has much in common with those found in ruminant mammals from other continents, but there are also unique features.
- (psychiatry) A set of alters, or the multiple (“the individual with multiple personalities due to, for example, a dissociative personality disorder”) who contains them.
- 2017, “A New Therapist”, in Patricia Frankish and Valerie Sinason, editors, Holistic Therapy for People with Dissociative Identity Disorder, London: Karnac Books, →ISBN, page 79:
- Rosie's courage allowed her to engage with me quickly and soon provided reassurance to others in the system that I was safe and non-abusive. Soon after, a number of other alters made themselves known to me. […] I was initially very worried that I would offend the system by missing when switches occurred, or even misidentify who was present with me.
- For more quotations using this term, see Citations:system.
- (astronomy) A planetary system; a set of planets orbiting a star or star system
- A method or way of organizing or planning.
- Followers should have a system to follow that works in their interests, not against them.
- 1749, Henry Fielding, “In which Fortune Seems to have been in a Better Humour with Jones than We have hitherto Seen Her”, in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, volume IV, London: A[ndrew] Millar […], OCLC 928184292, book VIII, page 253:
- But ſo Matters fell out, and ſo I muſt relate them; and if any Reader is ſhocked at their appearing unnatural, I cannot help it. I must remind ſuch Persons, that I am not writing a Syſtem, but a Hiſtory, and I am not obliged to reconcile every Matter to the received Notions concerning Truth and Nature.
- 1915, G[eorge] A. Birmingham [pseudonym; James Owen Hannay], chapter I, in Gossamer, New York, N.Y.: George H. Doran Company, OCLC 5661828, pages 13–14:
- As a political system democracy seems to me extraordinarily foolish, but I would not go out of my way to protest against it. My servant is, so far as I am concerned, welcome to as many votes as he can get. I would very gladly make mine over to him if I could.
- 2012 March–April, John T[homas] Jost, “Social Justice: Is It in Our Nature (and Our Future)?”, in American Scientist, volume 100, number 2, archived from the original on 21 June 2017, page 162:
- He draws eclectically on studies of baboons, descriptive anthropological accounts of hunter-gatherer societies and, in a few cases, the fossil record. With this biological framework in place, [Peter] Corning endeavors to show that the capitalist system as currently practiced in the United States and elsewhere is manifestly unfair.
In attributive use, especially relating to computer systems, the plural is more common than the singular; one normally speaks of a systems engineer and not a system engineer.
- Ardois system
- binary system
- biological system
- block system
- Caland system
- Chautauqua system
- complex adaptive system
- complex system
- computer system
- conceptual system
- coordinate system
- Copernican system
- Crofton system
- Cronquist system
- cultural system
- cyber-physical system
- dynamical system
- economic system
- embedded system
- expert system
- formal system
- Ganz system
- Ghent system
- global positioning system
- information system
- isolated system
- legal system
- metric system
- multi-agent system
- nervous system
- open system
- operating system
- physical system
- political system
- prototype-based system
- Ptolemaic system
- sensory system
- social system
- sociotechnical system
- Solar System
- → Japanese: システム (shisutemu)
system m (plural systems)
- Word used in star system
- a system
- “system” in The Bokmål Dictionary.
- a system
- “system” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
system m inan
- system (collection of organized things; whole composed of relationships among its members)
- Synonym: układ
- system in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
- system in Polish dictionaries at PWN
- a system, a way or method of organizing items and knowledge
- a computer system (primarily its hardware)
- a system of restricted sales of alcohol, including state-owned monopoly shops
|Declension of system|
Being a word borrowed from English derived from Greek, the y in system is pronounced /ɨ̞, ɪ/ rather than expected /ə/. To preserve consistency between pronunciation and spelling, some prefer to spell this word sustem. Nevertheless, system is the more common spelling of the two. See pyramid/puramid, symbol/sumbol, synthesis/sunthesis for similar examples.
system f (plural systemau, not mutable)
- systematig (“systematic”)
- R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “system”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies