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LatvianEdit

 tirgus on Latvian Wikipedia
 
Tirgus

EtymologyEdit

Some consider this word borrowed from Old East Slavic търгъ (tŭrgŭ, market, commerce), which agrees with the u in Lithuanian (and Latvian dialectal) tur̃gus, but not with the i in standard tirgus. Others propose that it is the natural development of Proto-Baltic *terg-, *tirg-, from Proto-Indo-European *ter-, *tor-, *tr̥- (to make noise, to talk a lot) (whence Latvian tērzēt, tirzāt (to chat, to chatter), q.v.) with an extra -g (whence also Latvian tērgot, tērgāt (to chat, to chatter), where the long ē is secondary; q.v.). The semantic evolution would be, in this case: “much (loud) talking” > “noise, bustle” (still currently attested; see below) > “(place where there is) much noise, bustle” > “place where people meet, village square, market.” In the 18th and 19th centuries, the meaning “price” is also attested. Cognates include Lithuanian tur̃gus, Proto-Slavic *tъrgъ (Old Church Slavonic тръгъ (trŭgŭ, people gathering, market, marketplace), Old East Slavic търгъ (tŭrgŭ), торгъ (tŭrgŭ, torgŭ, market, commerce), Russian, Ukrainian торг (torg, commerce; (arch.) market; (pl.) auction), Bulgarian търг (tǎrg, auction; commerce), Czech trh (market), Polish targ (market)), Old Norse, Icelandic, Swedish torg (market, marketplace), Danish torv (market, marketplace), Albanian treg (market).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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NounEdit

tirgus m (3rd declension)

  1. market, marketplace (a square, a building, a space, where agricultural and/or industrial goods are sold and bought; the kind of buying and selling that takes place in such a place)
    tirgus laukumsmarket square, marketplace
    tirgus burzmamarket bustle
    rudens tirgusautumn market
    zivju tirgusfish market
    puķu tirgusflower market
    tirgus cenamarket price
    tirgus somamarket bag
    iepirkties tirgūto shop in the market
    vest uz tirgu ābolusto take apples to the market
    gada tirgus, gadatirgusyear market, fair
    nedeļas tirgusweekly market
    tirgus sievamarket woman (i.e., who trades in a market)
    krāmu tirgusflea market (where common, used objects are sold)
    melnais tirgusblack market (= illegal market)
  2. (figuratively) noise, uproar, confusion
    netaisiet tirgu!don't make a market! (= confusion, noise)
    drīz vien bērni sāka kliegt cits caur citu: sacēlas īsts tirgussoon the children started shouting at each other: a real market (= confusion, uproar) arose
  3. market (system of trading; trade processes, relations)
    iekšējais, vietējais, ārējais tirgusinternal, local, foreign market
    starptautiskais tirgusinternational market
    naftas tirgusthe oil market
    brīvais tirgusfree market
    brīvā tirgus ekonomikafree market economy
    tirgus attiecībasmarket relations
    pasaules tirgusthe world market (= international trade system)

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “tirgus”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7