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LatvianEdit

 tirgus on Latvian Wikipedia
 
Tirgus

EtymologyEdit

Some consider this word a borrowing from Old East Slavic търгъ(tŭrgŭ, market, commerce), which agrees with the u in Lithuanian (and Latvian dialectal) tur̃gus, but not with the i in standard tirgus. Others propose that it is the natural development of Proto-Baltic *terg-, *tirg-, from Proto-Indo-European *ter-, *tor-, *tr̥-(to make noise, to talk a lot) (whence Latvian tērzēt, tirzāt(to chat, to chatter), q.v.) with an extra -g (whence also Latvian tērgot, tērgāt(to chat, to chatter), where the long ē is secondary; q.v.). The semantic evolution would be, in this case: “much (loud) talking” > “noise, bustle” (still currently attested; see below) > “(place where there is) much noise, bustle” > “place where people meet, village square, market.” In the 18th and 19th centuries, the meaning “price” is also attested. Cognates include Lithuanian tur̃gus, Proto-Slavic *tъrgъ (Old Church Slavonic тръгъ(trŭgŭ, people gathering, market, marketplace), Old East Slavic търгъ(tŭrgŭ), торгъ(tŭrgŭ, torgŭ, market, commerce), Russian, Ukrainian торг(torg, commerce; (arch.) market; (pl.) auction), Bulgarian търг(tǎrg, auction; commerce), Czech trh(market), Polish targ(market)), Old Norse, Icelandic, Swedish torg(market, marketplace), Danish torv(market, marketplace), Albanian treg(market).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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NounEdit

tirgus m (3rd declension)

  1. market, marketplace (a square, a building, a space, where agricultural and/or industrial goods are sold and bought; the kind of buying and selling that takes place in such a place)
    tirgus laukums‎ ― market square, marketplace
    tirgus burzma‎ ― market bustle
    rudens tirgus‎ ― autumn market
    zivju tirgus‎ ― fish market
    puķu tirgus‎ ― flower market
    tirgus cena‎ ― market price
    tirgus soma‎ ― market bag
    iepirkties tirgū‎ ― to shop in the market
    vest uz tirgu ābolus‎ ― to take apples to the market
    gada tirgus, gadatirgus‎ ― year market, fair
    nedeļas tirgus‎ ― weekly market
    tirgus sieva‎ ― market woman (i.e., who trades in a market)
    krāmu tirgus‎ ― flea market (where common, used objects are sold)
    melnais tirgus‎ ― black market (= illegal market)
  2. (figuratively) noise, uproar, confusion
    netaisiet tirgu!‎ ― don't make a market! (= confusion, noise)
    drīz vien bērni sāka kliegt cits caur citu: sacēlas īsts tirgus‎ ― soon the children started shouting at each other: a real market (= confusion, uproar) arose
  3. market (system of trading; trade processes, relations)
    iekšējais, vietējais, ārējais tirgus‎ ― internal, local, foreign market
    starptautiskais tirgus‎ ― international market
    naftas tirgus‎ ― the oil market
    brīvais tirgus‎ ― free market
    brīvā tirgus ekonomika‎ ― free market economy
    tirgus attiecības‎ ― market relations
    pasaules tirgus‎ ― the world market (= international trade system)

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “tirgus”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7