Last modified on 13 August 2014, at 01:54

する

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Japanese root verb (su, to do).[1][2]

As with all verbs, during the Middle Japanese stage in the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal or sentence-ending form) was gradually lost as the 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) came to be used for both the attributive and terminal grammatical roles, realigning the conjugations.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

VerbEdit

する (transitive, irregular conjugation, romaji suru)

  1. to do
     (なに)していますか。
    nani o shite imasu ka.
    What are you doing?
  2. to wear (accessories)
    ネクタイをする
    nekutai o suru.
    I wear a necktie.
Usage notesEdit

The verb する (“to do”) is seldom written in kanji (為る).

It is common to use する after certain nouns to indicate that the noun is being done; this is highly productive, meaning many nouns can be used as verbs in this way. Some examples are:

  • 失礼 (shitsurei, rudeness) → 失礼する (shitsurei suru, “to do a rudeness” → “to be rude”)
  • 旅行 (ryokō, journey) → 旅行する (ryokō suru, “to do a journey” → “to travel”)
SynonymsEdit
  • (to do): 成す, 為す (なす, ​nasu) (somewhat archaic, usage is more limited)
  • (to do): 行う (おこなう, ​okonau) (to carry out)
  • (used to make a verb): 〜る (-ru), a much less productive suffix for turning a noun into a verb
See alsoEdit
ConjugationEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Reading for various kanji spellings.

VerbEdit

する (romaji suru)

Various verbs deriving from senses similar to “to slide” or “to rub”:

  1. 刷る, 摺る: to print something (from the way the paper would be placed on the printing block and rubbed)
  2. 掏る: to pick someone's pocket (possibly from the way a pickpocket must slide along unnoticed;[1] compare English slick)
  3. 擦る, 摩る, 磨る, 擂る: to slide, to rub, to chafe, to strike (as in a match, by rubbing); to lose or waste money
  4. 剃る: irregular reading for 剃る (soru, to shave)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3