Last modified on 6 May 2014, at 16:49
See also:

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Ideogrammic compound (會意): semantic  + semantic 

Han characterEdit

(radical 60 +8 in Chinese, 彳+9 in Japanese, in Chinese 11 strokes, in Japanese 12 strokes, cangjie input 竹人人一中 (HOOML), four-corner 27220, composition)

  1. drive, ride
  2. chariot
  3. manage

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 368, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10157
  • Dae Jaweon: page 693, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 832, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+5FA1

CantoneseEdit

HanziEdit

(traditional , Jyutping jyu6, ngaa6, Yale yu6, nga6)

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JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , romaji o)
(hiragana , romaji go)

  1. Prefix indicating that the word is honorific. Often used to indicate that the word belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker).
Usage notesEdit

This prefix is frequently written in hiragana, both because it is complicated and common, and because its reading may be ambiguous if the term is unfamiliar. When the prefix is read as o- (as opposed to go-), it is almost exclusively written in hiragana.

While in general this prefix is optional, in many cases it is so commonly used that the base word can no longer be used in isolation, as in 御飯 (ごはん, gohan, rice) – the form ×飯 *han is not used alone, though it can be used as parts of compounds (such as 炊飯, suihan), and the character can be read in isolation as meshi.

Usage varies between speakers, situations, and sex – more polite speech, especially by women, features more use of this prefix, while blunt speech, especially by men, uses it less or not at all (words where the prefix has become mandatory are replaced by blunter terms that do not have the prefix). In rare cases a prefixed term has become impolite, as in 御前 (omae, you (familiar or derogatory)).

This character is generally read as お (o-) when it is prefixed to words considered to be of Japanese origin, as in 御水 (おみず, omizu, water), and ご (go-) when it is prefixed to words considered to be of Chinese origin, as in 御主人 (ごしゅじん, goshujin, husband). There are numerous exceptions, however, such as お電話. For (non-Chinese) foreign loan words (外来語, gairaigo), this prefix is seldom used, and both お- and ご- may be used, but お- is somewhat preferred, as in おビール (o-bīru) for beer.

In some rare cases, it is pronounced み (mi-), primarily for religious words, pertaining to gods or the emperor, as in 御輿 (mikoshi, a type of shrine). However, in this context it is often replaced by ("god", also pronounced mi-), and then a further 御 (pronounced お, o-) may be added, as in 御神輿 (o-mi-koshi). The mi- prefix also became merged into other kanji, as in (miya, imperial palace).

In rare cases, this is used as a suffix instead, notably in 甥御 oigo and 姪御 meigo (your nephew, your niece).

御 (お, o-) should not be confused with (おお, ō-, great), which is a less-commonly used prefix.

See Honorific prefixes in Japanese for further discussion.

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Japanese. Cognate with / (mi, spirit, god), as this prefix was originally used to refer to gods and other spiritually important things.

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , romaji mi)

  1. Honorific prefix added to gods and other spiritually important things. Also added to other nouns to indicate godlike respect.
  2. Added to place names to emphasize beauty. (This usage is more often written in hiragana)
Derived termsEdit
Alternative formsEdit
  • (beautiful place):
  • (beautiful place):

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eo, a) (hangeul , , revised eo, a, McCune-Reischauer ŏ, a, Yale e, a)

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MandarinEdit

HanziEdit

(traditional , Pinyin (yu4), (ya4), Wade-Giles 4, ya4)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ngự, ngợ, ngừ, ngừa)

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