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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *ātro-, *ātra-, from Proto-Indo-European *ētro- (quick, fast). Another possible etymological source is Proto-Indo-European *āter-, *ātr- (fire) (compare Avestan 𐬁𐬙𐬀𐬭 (ātar, fire), in which case the semantic evolution would be “hot” > “fiery, passionate” > “fast, quick.” It is also possible that *ētro- and *āter- have the same origin, or are ultimately the same stem. Cognates include dialectal Lithuanian otrùs (sensitive, delicate; passionate, dilligent, laborious), Old High German ātar (sharp; subtle; quick, fast) (< *ētró-); some researchers include also the old Thracian river name Athrys (now Jantra, in Bulgaria).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

ātrs (definite ātrais, comparative ātrāks, superlative visātrākais, adverb ātri)

  1. fast, quick, rapid (capable of moving long distances in a short time; in rapid tempo)
    ātra mašīnafast car
    visātrakais skrējējsthe fastest runner
    ātra runafast talk
    ātra izaugsmerapid growth
    pulkstenis ir ātrāksthe clock is fast (= shows the wrong time, later than it really is)
    visātrākais ir gaismas stars; tā atrums ir 300 000 kilometru sekundēthe fastest (entity) is a light ray; its speed is 300 000 kilometers per second
  2. fast, quick (which takes place or is made in a short time)
    ātrs skrējiensquick race
    ātra elpošanaquick breathing
    ātra uzvaraquick victory
    ātra nāvequick death
    ātrs lēmumsquick decision
    ātrā (medicīniskā) palīdzībafirst aid (lit. quick medical help)
  3. (of people) quick to become angry, short-tempered, temperamental
    ātras dabas cilvkēsshort-tempered person (lit. a person with a quick nature)
    lepna un ātra tā pārtrauca īso sarunu, paturēdama pēdējo vārduproud and quick (= short-tempered), she interrupted the short conversation, keeping the last word (for herself)
  4. (of looks, smiles) quick (lasting a short time)
    tad viņš uzmeta ātru skatu Ilzeithen he cast a quick glance at Ilze

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ātrs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7