Uncertain. Has been compared to Common Slavic *želězo (“iron”), Latin ferrum, and Hittite [script needed] (ḫapalki-). Perhaps related to κάλχη (kálkhē, “purple”). Ultimately, Proto-Indo-European origin seems unlikely and the word is probably a borrowing.
- (5th BC Attic): IPA: /kʰalkós/
- (1st BC Egyptian): IPA: /kʰalkós/
- (4th AD Koine): IPA: /xalkós/
- (10th AD Byzantine): IPA: /xalkós/
- (15th AD Constantinopolitan): IPA: /xalkós/
- (poetic) anything made of metal
- other metals, such as bronze, brass
- copper, cauldron, urn
- copper money
- χαλκοῦ ἄνθος (khalkoû ánthos, “particle thrown off by copper while cooling”)
- Robert S. P. Beekes (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
- G5475 in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible.