Appendix:Greek pronunciation

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VowelsEdit

The following table contains some vowel letters that are pronounced as consonants.
Also see Diphthongs.

IPA IPA used elsewhere Articulation Examples Notes
α a ɐ low central αγορά /aɣoˈɾa/, άνω ano/
ο
ω
o or ɔ mid back ομάδα /oˈmaða/
πάνω /ˈpano/, ωμέγα /oˈmeɣa/
ου u high back πουλί /puˈli/, φούστα /ˈfusta/
ε
αι
e or ɛ mid front πεθερά /peθeˈɾa/, μέλι /ˈmeli/
αιτία /eˈtia/, παιδί /peˈði/
ι
η
υ
ει
οι
υι
i high front βιβλίο /viˈvlio/, παιδί /peˈði/
μητέρα /miˈteɾa/, νίκη /ˈnici/
γλυκό /ɣliˈko/
κλειδί /kliˈði/

κοινός /ciˈnos/
υιός /iˈos/

  1. When not followed by a vowel(e.g. μικρός /miˈkros/
  2. When stressed (e.g. δουλεία /ðuˈli.a/)
  3. In words of learned origin (e.g. ποιόν /piˈon/)
  4. When preceded by consonant + [ɾ] (e.g. μητριά /mi.tɾiˈa/)
ι
η
υ
οι
ει
ʝ j καράβια /kaˈɾavʝa/, παιδιά /peˈðʝa/, μαγειρειό /maʝiɾˈʝo/ only with unstressed [i] after β, δ, ζ, ρ and before a vowel
ç φωτιά /foˈtça/, ελάφια /eˈlafça/, καλάθια /kaˈlaθça/, ίσιος /ˈisços/, πιο /ˈpço/, ποιος /ˈpços/ only with unstressed [i] after θ, π, σ, τ, φ and before a vowel
ɲ μια /ˈmɲa/, μυαλό /mɲaˈlo/ only with unstressed [i] after μ and before a vowel
για /ʝa/, κιάλια /ˈcaʎa/, νοιάζομαι /ˈɲazome/, χιόνι /ˈçoni/ only with unstressed [i] after γ, κ, λ, ν, χ and before a vowel. The preceding consonant becomes palatal.
αυ af αυτός /aˈftos/, ταυ /ˈtaf/ before unvoiced consonants (π τ κ θ χ σ ξ ψ)[1] and word-final
av αυγή /aˈvʝi/, μαύρος /ˈmavɾos/ before vowels and voiced consonants (δ γ ζ λ ρ μ ν)[1]
ευ ef ευχαριστώ /efxaɾiˈsto/ before unvoiced consonants (π τ κ θ χ σ ξ ψ)[1] and word-final
ev ευαγγέλιο /evaŋˈɟelio/ before vowels and voiced consonants (δ γ ζ λ ρ μ ν)[1]
e Εύβοια evia/, ευφημισμός /efimiˈzmos/ before β, φ
ηυ if επηυξημένος /epifksiˈmenos/ before unvoiced consonants (π τ κ θ χ σ ξ ψ) and word-final
iv απηύδησα /aˈpivðisa/ before vowels and voiced consonants (δ γ ζ λ ρ μ ν)

DiphthongsEdit

Diphthongs: when two vowels are pronounced very fast, as one syllable.

IPA IPA used elsewhere Articulation Examples Notes
άι αϊ ai̯ aj a͜i νεράιδα /neˈɾai̯.ða/, χαϊδεύω /xai̯ˈðe.vo/
όι οϊ oi̯ oj o͜i κορόιδο /koˈɾoi̯.ðo/, κοροϊδεύω /ko.ɾoi̯ˈðe.vo/

ConsonantsEdit

Also see some Vowels that are pronounced as consonants.
Also see Grouped consonants.

IPA IPA used elsewhere Articulation Examples Notes
β v Voiced labiodental fricative βουλή /vuˈli/, σοβαρός /sovaˈɾos/, συμβουλή /siɱvuˈli/, βόδι voði/, βόρεια voɾia/
γ ɣ Voiced velar fricative γάμος ɣamos/, αγάπη /aˈɣapi/, αγόρι /aˈɣoɾi/, γάτα ɣata/ before [a], [o], [u]
ʝ j Voiced palatal fricative για /ʝa/, γένος ʝenos/, Γεώργιος /ʝeˈoɾʝios/, γυαλί /ʝaˈli/ before ι, η, υ, οι, ει and [e]
δ ð Voiced dental fricative (interdental) δώρο ðoɾo/, παιδί /peˈði/, δάχτυλο ðaxtilo/, ενδιαφέρον /enðiaˈfeɾon/
ζ z Voiced alveolar fricative ζωή /zoˈi/, ζήλια ziʎa/, χαζός /xaˈzos/, ζάχαρη zaxaɾi/
θ θ Voiceless dental fricative (interdental) θάλασσα θalasa/, άνθος /ˈanθos/, θέμα θema/
κ k Voiceless velar plosive κόρη koɾi/, σύκα /ˈsika/ before [a] [o] [u]
c Voiceless palatal plosive κήπος cipos/, πακέτο /paˈceto/, κιάλια caʎa/ before ι, η, υ, ει, οι and [e]
λ l Dental lateral approximant λάθος laθos/, καλό /kaˈlo/, λεμόνι /leˈmoni/, πάλι /ˈpali/ [ʎ] before [i] in some dialects, idiolects
ʎ Palatal lateral approximant κιάλια /ˈcaʎa/ [li]+vowel with [i] unstressed
μ m Bilabial nasal μόνος monos/, χώμα /ˈxoma/
ɱ Labiodental nasal συμφωνία /siɱfoˈnia/, σύμβαση /ˈsiɱvasi/ before β, φ (labial/labiodental fricatives)
ν n Dental nasal νονός /noˈnos/, ένας /ˈenas/, άνω /ˈano/, νύχτα nixta/, άνοιξη /ˈaniksi/ [ɲ] before [i] in some dialects and idiolects
ɲ Palatal nasal νοιάζομαι ɲazome/, πανιά /paˈɲa/ [ni]+vowel with [i] unstressed
ŋ Velar nasal άγγελος /ˈaŋɟelos/, ανάγκη /aˈnaŋɟi/, εγχείριση /eŋˈçiɾisi invalid IPA characters (/)
πανκ /ˈpaŋk/, Χέμινγουεϊ /ˈçemiŋɣuˈei/
before velar and palatal consonants[2]
or pronunciations of non-Greek terms
ξ ks Voiceless velar plosive and Voiceless alveolar fricative ξένος ksenos/
π p Voiceless bilabial plosive πόδι poði/, κάπου /ˈkapu/, παπάς /paˈpas/, πέντε pende/
ρ ɾ r Alveolar flap ροδιά /ɾoˈðʝa/, ψάρι /ˈpsaɾi/, πάρα /ˈpaɾa/, ρετσίνα /ɾeˈt͡sina/
σ/ς s Voiceless alveolar fricative σώμα soma/, δάσος /ˈðasos/, βάση /ˈvasi/, σαλάτα /saˈlata/
σ z Voiced alveolar fricative Λέσβος /ˈlezvos/, Πελασγός /pelaˈzɣos/, Έσδρας /ˈezðɾas/, κόσμος /ˈkozmos/ before [v, ɣ, ʝ, ð, z, m]
τ t Voiceless dental plosive

Voiceless alveolar plosive

τέλος telos/, ποτό /poˈto/, μητέρα /miˈteɾa/
φ f Voiceless labiodental fricative φόρος foɾos/, νέφος /ˈnefos/, φούστα fusta/
χ x Voiceless velar fricative χαρά /xaˈɾa/, άγχος /ˈaŋxos/, χουρμάς /xuɾˈmas/, χρεώνω /xɾeˈo.no/, δάχτυλο /ˈðax.ti.lo/, Αλλάχ /aˈlax/ before [a, o, u], or consonants; at the end of words
ç Voiceless palatal fricative χιόνι çoni/, βροχή /vɾoˈçi/, χέρι çeɾi/ before ι, η, υ, ει, οι, [e]
ψ ps Voiceless bilabial plosive and Voiceless alveolar fricative ψωμί /psoˈmi/

Grouped consonantsEdit

IPA IPA used elsewhere Articulation Examples Notes
τσ
τς
t͡s Voiceless alveolar affricate τσέπη t͡sepi/, παπούτσι /paˈput͡si/
τζ d͡z Voiced alveolar affricate τζαμί /d͡zaˈmi/, παντζάρι /panˈd͡zaɾi/
μπ b Voiced bilabial plosive μπότα bota/, μπίρα biɾa/ initial position
mb Prenasalized Voiced bilabial plosive καμπάνα /kamˈbana/ medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors; alternative pronunciations: [ᵐb, b]
b Voiced bilabial plosive μπουμπούκι /buˈbuci/ medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors
mp Prenasalized Voiceless bilabial plosive κομπιούτερ /komˈpçuteɾ/ with borrowed words (careful § barely attested pronunciation), commonly pronounced /koˈbʝuter/
μπτ mt or mpt Πέμπτη /ˈpemti/ or /ˈpempti/
ντ d Voiced dental plosive ντουλάπα /duˈlapa/, ντάμα dama/, ντομάτα /doˈmata/ initial position
nd Prenasalized Voiced dental plosive πέντε /ˈpende/, έντομο /ˈendomo/ medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors; alternative pronunciation: [ⁿd, d]
d Voiced dental plosive ντουντούκα /duˈduka/ medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors
nt Prenasalized Voiceless dental plosive αντένα /anˈtena/ with borrowed words (careful § barely attested pronunciation), commonly pronounced /aˈdena/
ντσ
ντς
nt͡s Prenasalized Voiceless alveolar affricate  αβάντσα  /aˈvant͡sa/
ντζ nd͡z Prenasalized Voiced alveolar affricate  σκαντζόχοιρος  /skaˈnd͡zoçiɾos/ Many speakers don't distinguish between dz and ndz and for those who do their ndz doesn't map consistently with the established spellings, thus the given word may be pronounced as /skaˈdzoçiɾos/ by both of the above-mentioned groups.
γκ ɡ Voiced velar plosive γκρίνια ɡɾiɲa/, γκάζι ɡazi/ initial position, before [a, o, u], or a consonant
ɟ Voiced palatal plosive γκιόνης ɟonis/ initial position, before ι, η, υ, οι, ει, [e]
ŋɡ Prenasalized Voiced velar plosive αγκώνας /aŋˈɡonas/ medial position
ŋɟ Prenasalized Voiced palatal plosive ανάγκη /aˈnaŋɟi/ medial position
γκτ ŋkt ελεγκτής /eleˈŋktis/
γγ ŋɡ Prenasalized Voiced velar plosive αγγλικός /aŋɡlikos/ alternate pronunciation: [ᵑɡ, ɡ]
ŋɟ Prenasalized Voiced palatal plosive άγγελος /ˈaŋɟelos/ before ι, η, υ, ει, οι, [e]; alternate pronunciation: [ᵑɟ, ɟ]
ŋɣ Prenasalized Voiced velar fricative έγγραφο /ˈeŋɣɾafo/
ŋʝ ŋj Prenasalized Voiced palatal fricative εγγεγραμμένος /eŋʝeɣɾaˈmenos/ before [i] and [e]
γχ ŋx Prenasalized Voiceless velar fricative άγχος /ˈaŋxos/
ŋç Prenasalized Voiceless palatal fricative αγχίνοια /aŋˈçinia/ before [i] and [e]
γξ ŋks Σφιγξ /sfiŋks/

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Holton, D., Mackridge, P. and Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1997). Greek: A comprehensive grammar of the modern language. London: Routledge.
  2. ^ For /ŋɟ ŋç/ see §1.4.2.4. at Mackridge, Peter (1985) The Modern Greek Language: A Descriptive Analysis of Standard Modern Greek. Oxford University Press.

Suggested sourcesEdit

The main sources of the values above were: